sangedatsumon 三解脱門
KEY WORD : architecture / gates
Also *sanmon 三門. The most famous example is Zoujouji 増上寺 (1622) in Tokyo, the very large gate, 21.05m x 9.72m. Sangedatsumon refers to actual gate, but the word also refers to three spiritual gates one must pass through to attain enlightenment, 1 kuugedatsumon 空解脱門 shortened to kuumon 空門 ; 2 musou gedatsumon 無相解脱門 abbreviated to musoumon 無相門 ; and 3 mugan gedatsumon 無願解脱門 or musamon 無作門. The gate at Zoujouji a 2-storied gate Nijuumon 二重門, 5 x 3 bays, and has three entrances. Fences *hei 塀, about the length of 2-bays, are attached to each side of the gate and have board roofing *itabuki yane 板葺屋根. They are connected to single-storied buildings called *sanrou 山廊 that contain the stairways leading to the second floor of the gate. They are about 3 x 2 bays. The longer sides run in the direction of the purlin *keta 桁. They have gabled roofs *kirizuma yane 切妻屋根, and are covered with tile *hongawarabuki 本瓦葺. Undecorated wood is used in the second story. The pillars *hashira 柱, are placed inside and secured by penetrating tie beams *nuki 貫, on top of which 3-on-1 brackets complexes *mitesaki tokyou 三手先斗きょう, are used to support the ceiling joists *tenjouketa 天井桁. The central part of the interior space has big, sturdy, rainbow beams *kouryou 虹梁, that run transversely. The whole structure is very strong. Shakyamuni *Shaka 釈迦, and three statues are enshrined in the central altar. The sixteen arhats *juuroku rakan 十六羅漢 are set on pedestals next to the three statues. The Zen style *zenshuuyou 禅宗様 is evident in the use of closely packed 3-on-1 bracket complexes, fan rafters *ougidaruki 扇垂木, and rainbow beams with bottle struts *taiheizuka 大瓶束, in the gable pediments *tsuma 妻. The gate entrance is placed in the second row of pillars in from the front of the gate. Examples: Toufukuji Sanmon 東福寺三門 (1428) and Daitokuji Sanmon 大徳寺三門 (1582), both in Kyoto.


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