|KEY WORD : art history / sculptures|
|A workshop or school of Buddhist sculptors *busshi 仏師. Bussho usually refers either to workshops active from the 10c on run by a temple or to independent workshops, as opposed to government-run workshops *zoubussho 造仏所 of the late 7-8c. Jouchou 定朝 (?-1057, see *Jouchouyou 定朝様) is regarded as the founding father of Japan's most important 11-12c bussho, which are the En school *Enpa 円派; In school *Inpa 院派; and Kei school *Keiha 慶派. The En and In schools were situated in Kyoto *kyoto busshi 京都仏師; the En school had a large workshop in *sanjou bussho 三条仏所, and the In school had large workshops in Shichijou-Oomiya *shichijou oomiya bussho 七条大宮仏所, and Rokujou madenokouji *rokujou madenokouji bussho, 六条万里小路仏所. The Kei school was based at Koufukuji 興福寺 in Nara *nara busshi 奈良仏師, with another workshop in Kyoto Shichijou *shichijou bussho 七条仏所. During the Heian period, all these bussho based their sculptural style on that of Jouchou, and produced works commissioned by the court, nobility, and temples. Most busshi were also Buddhist priests, and the position of bussho head *daibusshi 大仏師, was normally passed on from father to son. Under the daibusshi's supervision were a team of artists *shoubusshi 小仏師, who had specialized skills. For example *saishiki busshi 彩色仏師 painted the haloes and pedestals on statues, and *hakushi 薄師 applied gold leaf. This enabled a division of labour that was efficient for large projects. Jouchou is said to have had 120 sculptors working in his studio. His only surviving work is Amida Nyoraizou 阿弥陀如来像 (1053) in Byoudouin *Hououdou 平等院鳳凰堂, Kyoto. In the 13-14c, bussho subdivided and opened new workshops. The Keiha flourished at that time, through the patronage of the Kamakura government. Shichijou bussho, for example, expanded to three workshops: shichijou naka bussho 七条中仏所, shichijou higashi bussho 七条東仏所, and shichijou nishi bussho 七条西仏所. New schools of Nara sculptors *nanto busshi 南都仏師 were particularly important: *Zenpa 善派 was set up in the 13c, *tsubai bussho 椿井仏所 in the 14c, and *takama bussho 高間仏所 and *shukuin busshi 宿院仏師 were active in the 15-16c. Shukuin was one of the first bussho where sculptors worked as laymen without assuming the status of monks. Other so-called commercial workshops of this kind were active during the 17-19c, and the bussho system itself survived until the 19c. Regional workshops outside Kyoto and Nara, established since the Heian period, also followed the bussho model established by Jouchou.|
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