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reibyou@—ì•_
CATEGORY:@architecture / shrines
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Also byousho •_Š or mitamaya —쉮.
A mausoleum in which the spirit of the dead is enshrined. It may be related to the Sanskrit word chita, which means the wood used for the funeral pyre, but in Japan it refers to the tomb itself. Rei —ì means "spirit". The first reibyou, was constructed at Toyokuni Jinja –L‘_ŽÐ, in Kyoto, for Toyotomi Hideyoshi –LbG‹g (1536-98) in 1599, the year after his death. It was destroyed by the Tokugawa “¿ì family but its ruins and screen paintings suggest it was modeled after the shrine called Kitano Tenmanguu –k–ì“V–ž‹{. This shrine was built in 947, in Kyoto, and dedicated to Sugawara Michizane ›Œ´“¹^, a man of splendid and remarkable ability, feared by the powerful Fujiwara “¡Œ´ clan, but forced to retire as a Viceroy to Kyuushuu ‹ãB.
From the first quarter of the 16c, the reibyou became a common burial structure for shogun, feudal lords, noblemen, generals, heroes or other especially revered people. They were usually erected within the precincts of a shrine or temple. Although the plan of the reibyou was never explicitly prescribed, they generally comprise a worship hall *haiden ”q“a and main sanctuary *honden –{“a connected by a passageway called ishi-no-ma Î‚ÌŠÔ. See *gongen-zukuri Œ Œ»‘¢. All reibyou are lavishly decorated with brilliantly lacquered relief sculpture. Even architectural members are embellished.
Tokugawa Ieyasu “¿ì‰ÆN (1542-1616), inspired by his predecessor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and by the enshrinement of the defied Fujiwara no Kamatari “¡Œ´Š™‘« (614-669) at Danzan Jinja ’kŽR_ŽÐ in Nara, aspired to diefication after his death and left clear instructions regarding the handling of his remains, his place of entombment and his funeral ceremonies. Thus, from 1616 to 1868, the building of reibyou was fashionable.
Examples: Nikkou Toushouguu, “úŒõ“ŒÆ‹{ (1636) in Tochigi prefecture. Vastly redesigned and rebuilt by Tokugawa Iemitsu “¿ì‰ÆŒõ between 1634-1636. Koudaiji Mitamaya ‚‘䎛—쉮 (1605) in Kyoto. Rinnouji Taiyuuin Reibyou —Ö‰¤Ž›‘å—Q‰@—ì•_ (1653) in Tochigi prefecture. Kongoubuji Mitamaya ‹à„•õŽ›—쉮, in Wakayama prefecture.
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Nikkou Toushouguu “úŒõ“ŒÆ‹{ (Tochigi)


Rinnouji Taiyuuin —Ö‰¤Ž›‘å—Q‰@ (Tochigi)


Koudaiji Otamaya ‚‘䎛—쉮 (Kyoto)

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