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raden@—†ην
CATEGORY:@art history / crafts
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1@A shell, especially mother-of-pearl, inlay technique commonly used for lacquer ware *makie ŽͺŠG. The shell was usually placed directly into the wood core by cutting through the ground and setting it flush with the wood's surface. The technique used pearl-like parts of such shells as oumugai κ_–·ŠL ( pearly nautilus), yakougai –ιŒυŠL (turban shell, lunica marmorata), awabigai ιΈ ŠL (abalone) or aogai ΒŠL (blue shell), chougai ’±ŠL (pearl oyster), and shijimigai ε„ŠL (corbicula). Shells are worn down into several thickness on a whetstone or grinder and cut into shapes, then pasted or inlayed on a wood or lacquered surface, and polished. The thickest shell decoration, a thinner application, and the thinnest use of shell are called atsugai ŒϊŠL, usugai ”–ŠL and kenma Œ¦– respectively. Decoration with shells is also called kaisuri ŠL . There are three ways of cutting shapes from shells: kirinukihou Ψ”²–@@(cutting out), suitable for atsugai, is cut with a scroll saw and finished with a file or rubstone; uchinukihou ‘Ε”²–@ (punching), for usugai, uses a punch with a template; and fushokuhou •…H–@ (eroding) which brushes patterns in lacquer on a surface of usugai paste, then applies hydrochloric acid so the unlacquered part is eaten away, before quickly washing it with water and peeling off the lacquer. Adhering shell to wood surface is achieved by: kannyuuhou ›Ζ“ό–@ (inlaying), where the shell sheet is inlaid in a carved surface; fuchakuhou •t’…–@ (adhering), where the cut-out shell is pasted on the wood and lacquered then polished; and oshikomihou ‰Ÿž–@ (pressing in), where the cut-out shell sheet is pressed into very thick lacquer.
The raden technique, introduced from Tang dynasty China to Nara period Japan, was used with *mokuga –Ψ‰ζ (mosaic), kohaku ΰζΰί (amber) and taimai ΰάΰξ (tortoise shell). Taimai, also called bekkou ꈍb, was used from the Nara period. Taimaibari ΰάΰξ’£‚θ is a one kind of suki-e “§ŠG (transparent painting) technique in which tortoise shell is covered over gold and silver foil and paint, and uses the *zougan Ϋ›Ζ (inlay) technique together with raden. Raden techniques developed greatly in the second half of the Heian period and were applied to architecture in combination with makie. Through the Kamakura period, raden was often applied to saddles. In the Muromachi period, Chinese and Korean raden ware was highly valued, and Japanese raden was influenced by them. In the Momoyama period, it was adopted into Nanban art nanban bijutsu “μ”Ψ”όp (see *nanban byoubu “μ”Ψ› •—). Honnami Kouetsu –{ˆ’–νŒυ‰x (1558-1637) and Ogata Kourin ”φŒ`Œυ—Τ(1658-1716) used raden and makie techniques. Raden techniques were also used for *inrou ˆσβΔ (seal case), combs and scabbards. Famous raden craftsmen include Ikushima Toushichi Ά“‡“‘Ž΅ in the early Edo period, Aogai Choubee ΒŠL’·•Ί‰q and Somada zaiku ž[“cΧH in the mid-Edo period, and Shibayama zaiku ŽΕŽRΧH in the late Edo period.

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@The technique originated in the Near East and its use eventually was imported to Japan from China in the 8c. Many early examples are to be found in the *Shousouin ³‘q‰@@in Nara. During and after the Heian period, rade was frequently combined with *makie ŽͺŠG lacquer techniques. Buddhist dais *shumidan {–ν’d, can be seen in the Byoudouin *Hououdou •½“™‰@–P™€“° and Taimadera *Mandaradou “––ƒŽ›™ΦδΆ—…“°.
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