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makie@ŽªŠG
CATEGORY:@art history / crafts
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Lit. sprinkled picture. A technique which originated in the Heian period for lacquer ware decoration in which designs are made by scattering adhesive metal or color powder in soft lacquer or directly on wood. Commonly used powders are gold, silver, aokin Â‹à (an alloy of gold and silver), tin *shakudou Ô“º (an alloy of copper and gold), gunmetal, an alloy of three parts copper to one of silver, brass, lead, aluminum, platinum, pewter, and kanshitsufun Š£Ž¼•², (dry-lacquer powder). Paint powders include yasurifun èk•² (coarse flakes produced by filing), hiramefun •½–Ú•² (flattened coarse flakes), nashijifun —œŽq’n•² (fine flakes used for pearskin lacquer decoration), marufun ŠÛ•² (grain-shaped flakes) and keshifun Á•² (frosted gold leaf). Two kinds of soft brushes are used for line drawing and applying the first coat: funzutsu •²“› (a bamboo tube with a silk or gauze net for laying powder) and tsumeban ’Ü”Õ (made of water-buffalo horn or tortoise shell for lacquer paint). Also used are the jouban ’è”Õ (box table), wide hake ü–Ñ brush and hair stick. Techniques are divided into three types. In the togidashi makie Œ¤oŽªŠG (burnished makie) technique popular in the Heian period, after the low relief sprinkled design and ground harden, they are covered in transparent or black lacquer, then polished down with charcoal until the design is flush with the new ground. Togidashi largely replaced the makkinru ––‹àèZ technique in which coarse gold filings were sprinkled over the wet design surface, relacquered, and polished until the design was revealed. Hiramakie •½ŽªŠG (flat makie), introduced in the Kamakura period, features sprinkled powders applied directly on the smooth lacquered surface in very low relief so only the thickness of the final protective lacquer coating is raised above the surface. In takamakie ‚ŽªŠG (raised makie), developed in the Muromachi period, metallic powders are applied to soft surface designs built up through a mixture of lacquer and charcoal or clay dust. They are affixed by a protective lacquer coat and polished. Cut metal shapes *kirikane Ø‹à and metal nacre, kanagai ‹àŠL techniques are often used in conjunction. Shishiai makie “÷‡ŽªŠG or shishiai togidashi makie “÷‡Œ¤oŽªŠG, a combination of the takamakie and togidashimakie techniques, was used frequently in landscapes where such elements as rocks, clouds, or mountains are done in a raised design that slopes gently into a flattened design. Ikakeji —€ãp’n, a precursor to the fundami •²—­ technique, is the process through which a ground is made by the heavy sprinkling of gold or silver powder in one coat. Makie application techniques include tsukegaki •t•` (drawing with narrow lacquer lines and oversprinkling with gold and silver filings), kakiwari •`Š„ (design motifs are emphasised with liqued lacquer and sprinkled gold and silver, while boarders are left plain), and abisemaki —‚¹Žª‚« (entire flower petals or leaves are scattered with gold fillings, and then outlines and veins are presented in higher or lower relief). Sprinkling techniques include jimaki ’nŽª (metal filings or pigment are deposited on the background of design motifs), chirimaki oŽª (coarse filings of gold or silver are sprinkled over the lacquered surface of an object), heijin •½o (where additional lacquer is applied over chirimaki decoration and then polished away with abrasives after it dries), and ikakeji (a type of jimaki where gold and silver powder is sprinkled densely over the lacquered ground), hirameji •½–Ú’n (filed and pressed coarse metal flakes are sprinkled over a half-dry lacquer surface, recoated, and finally polished to expose metal flakes), and nashiji —œŽq’n. Such techniques as *raden —†çí (lacquerware with mother-of-pearl inlay), hyoumon •½•¶ (imbedding of shapes cut out from gold, silver or tin sheets) may be used. Makie objects were first made as household goods for court nobles. Soon military leaders became patrons and makie styles evolved to serve new tastes. Nashiji (pear-skin ground), is the name given to two widely-used styles invented in the Kamakura period. In one, large irregular shaped gold flakes are scattered at differing angles in many layers in wet nashiji urushi —œŽq’nŽ½, a highly translucent lacquer that has been tinted orange; a further coating is applied and polishing exposes the flakes to produce an uneven surface texture. It is often used to give a uniformly decorative surface to large but less important areas, such as the insides of drawers or the bottoms of boxes. In the other nashiji technique, a fine metallic powder is sprinkled onto a lacquered surface; when dry, a coat of transparent lacquer is applied and lightly polished. Under the shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa ‘«—˜‹`­ (ruled 1449-74), lacquers in the so-called Higashiyama “ŒŽR style flourished. Kouami Douchou Kˆ¢–퓹’·(1410-78), the first lacquer master linked to specific works, used designs by such contemporary painters as Tosa Mitsunobu “y²ŒõM (1434-1525), Nouami ”\ˆ¢–í (1397-1471), and Souami ‘Šˆ¢–í (d. 1525). Kouami and another makie master, Igarashi Shinsai ŒÜ\—’MÖ (act mid-15c), started the two earliest schools of lacquer under direct shogunal patronage. The Kouami school Kouamiha Kˆ¢–í”h, continued in a direct line of descent to make lacquer ware for the shogunate until the 19c, typically with designs inspired by master painters of the Kanou school *Kanouha Žë–ì”h. A rival was the Igarashi school Igarashiha ŒÜ\—’”h, founded by Igarashi Shinsai under A‚“hikaga Yoshimasa and continuing through the 17c. Ryuukyuu shikki —®‹…Ž½Ší, made in Okinawa and the Amami ‰‚”ü Islands, was made from about 1500. Influenced by Chinese lacquer styles, the tsuikin ‘Í‹Ñ technique derived from ryuukyuu shikki. Tsuikin consisted of making a dough from lacquer solution and colored pigments, rolling this out, punching or cutting this into engraved patterns, and applying to the surface of a lacquered object. In the Momoyama period, a new, ultra-refined style of hiramakie was called koudaiji makie ‚‘䎛ŽªŠG. Associated with the temple Koudaiji ‚‘䎛, Kyoto, it used a black lacquer base decorated in the hiramakie style with e-nashiji ŠG—œŽq’n (sprinkling coarse flakes of gold over the whole surface or the background space on lacquerware), and harigaki j•` (engraving in lacquer with a needle). In the early Edo period, a special lacquer ware which mixed mother-of-pearl inlay with hiramakie was called nanban makie “ì”ØŽªŠG or nanban shitsugei “ì”ØŽ½Œ|. Displaying mostly Portuguese or Dutch motifs it is found most often on trunks made for the European export market. In the Edo period, Honnami Kouetsu –{ˆ¢–íŒõ‰x (1558-1637) and Ogata Kourin ”öŒ`Œõ—Ô (1658-1716) developed their own designs and techniques. At the end of the Edo period, techniques became more complicated, but the quality of materials declined and expression became perfunctory.
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