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ookabe-zukuri@‘å•Ç‘¢
KEY WORD :@architecture / general terms
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1@A style or method of constructing a wall, in which the basic framework for plastering is made on the exterior face of the uprights. No penetrating or horizontal timber is used except for the wide horizontal planks *nuki ŠÑ, set into notched spaces the exact thickness of the boards. Posts with a small diameter *mabashira ŠÔ’Œ, are erected between 36cm and 45cm apart between the uprights. Wooden laths *kizuri –ؐ , with a rough grain are spaced about 1.2cm apart and hammered into the uprights with two nails for each piece of lath. Several coats of plaster *shikkui Ž½‹ò, are then applied. The first rough coat is mud plaster *tsuchikabe “y•Ç, mixed with straw. The succeeding coats are each more refined until the final coat, which is carefully smoothed. The final coat was usually white, although cream and black were sometimes used. Ookabe-zukuri was used as a fireproofing system, similar in principle to the mud-wall structure *dozou-zukuri “y‘ ‘¢, but rather less substantial, as the external plaster coating was only about 3-5cm thick, measured from the outer face of the posts. Timber members were usually visible on the inside of the building. Buildings thus constructed were often referred to as *nuriya “h‰®. The technique was used for the walls, turrets *yagura ˜E, and keeps *tenshu “VŽç of castles, and for the row houses *nagaya ’·‰® and row-house gateways nagayamon ’·‰®–å surrounding warrior residences. Its development coincided with advances in techniques of defensive warfare which occurred in the latter half of the 16c. Every effort was made to ensure that castles more resistant to both fire and firearms, recently introduced from Europe. Ookabe-zukuri was also used for folk residences *minka –¯‰Æ, especially town houses *machiya ’¬‰Æ, and their ancillary structures, from the Momoyama period onward.
The technique is particularly associated with town houses in western Japan and the Kansai ŠÖ¼ region. Here, the forms of beams, brackets, cantilevered eave beams, the ends of rafters, and the frames and lattices *koushi ŠiŽq of windows are often visible, albeit encased in plaster. Sometimes decorative elements were introduced; for example, ideograms seen on the facade of the Toyoda –L“c house (1662), a cultural property in Nara. By the end of the Edo period, the decoration had become more elaborate and sculptural, and included birds, flowers or wave motifs, sometimes enhanced with color. The plastering on town houses was usually confined to the lateral walls and to the upper floor of the front and rear facades. The timber surface of structural members on the ground floor was left unplastered. Later town houses sometimes left rafter ends and the underside of the eaves unplastered.

2@A synonym for mud-wall structures *dozou-zukuri “y‘ ‘¢.
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Old Oohara ԌΫ house (Okayama)
Old Oohara ԌΫ house (Okayama)

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NOTES
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