|KEY WORD : art history / paintings|
|A copy of an original painting or work of calligraphy. More specific terms, such as *genjou mosha 現状模写 and *fukugen mosha 復元模写 define the exact purpose and relationship of the copy to the original. Terms such as *sukiutsushi 透写し, *ageutsushi あげ写し and *rinmo 臨模 indicate types of copying techniques. The original purpose of copying works of art or calligraphy was to faithfully preserve a work or to endeavor to understand the technique employed in the original. However, copying was also done for monetary profit which gave rise to the problem of forgeries, gisaku 偽作 also *gansaku 贋作. In China, where copying was included as one of the important Six Canons of painting appreciation *rikuhou 六法 developed in the early 6c, several methods of copying were employed. One entailed placing the paper alongside the original and looking back and forth from the original to the copy. Another was to place a thin piece of paper over the original and lightly trace the lines, called toumo 榻模 or soukou tenboku 双鈎填墨. Yet another method was to copy an original from memory or, in the case where no original example of the artist's work survived, to execute the work with an instinctive feeling or educated idea of the artist's style. All of the above methods were also passed on to Japan and expounded in the Six Canons.|
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