koumouga 紅毛画
KEY WORD : art history / paintings
Also known as oranda-e 阿蘭陀絵, also written 和蘭陀絵 or simply ranga 蘭画, meaning Dutch painting. Western-style painting *youfuuga 洋風画 introduced into Japan through the port of Nagasaki 長崎 in the latter half of the Edo period, when the country was closed to the world except for the Dutch and Chinese. Paintings introduced by the Portuguese in the Momoyama period were called *nanban-e 南蛮絵. The term koumou 紅毛 (red hair), which was already in use by the mid-Edo period, refers to the Dutch who traded in Nagasaki as well as to Western civilization in general. The popularity of koumouga was a result of interest in rangaku 蘭学 (Dutch studies). Practitioners include the painters of *Akita ranga 秋田蘭画, some Nagasaki school artists *Nagasakiha 長崎派 and individualists such as Shiba Koukan 司馬江漢 (1747-1818). They were interested in the realistic depiction of Western painting, especially in the rendering of three-dimensionality .


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