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youfuuga@—m•—‰æ
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Western-influenced paintings and prints produced in Japan before the Meiji period, including *nanban-e “ì”ØŠG and *koumouga g–щæ (also known as ranga —–‰æ). Youfuuga artists experimented with western painting techniques such as shading and perspective, as well as attempting to simulate the medium of oil with thick, colored paints. Traditional Japanese materials and subjects were also employed in combination with western techniques. Youfuuga began to be produced as early as 1540 after the introduction of Christianity and is usually divided into two phases. 1) Predates the ban on Christianity and the closing of the country in the mid-17c. Japanese artists were trained as copiers of sacred paintings for the Jesuits, using copperplate prints and paintings from the West as models. Many of the resulting Japanese paintings were done on screens with traditional materials, but western techniques such as heavy shading and one-point perspective were attempted. Subject matter included Christian themes, scenes of European nobility, depictions of battles between Christians and Moslems, western warriors on horseback, Europeans engaged in some sort of outdoor activity (such as playing musical instruments), and scenes of townscapes, cityscapes and lifestyles of the people in western countries. Because the Japanese artists were limited in what they could copy and the techniques they were able to learn, individual works tended to be copied over and over with slight variations. Phase I paintings are considered to be nanban-e but do not include *nanban byoubu “ì”Ø› •— or *nagasaki hanga ’·è”ʼnæ in which western themes are depicted with Japanese materials and techniques. 2) Also called koumouga or ranga, developed in the 18c partially as a result of the taste for foreign novelties but also in conjunction with the Dutch studies rangaku —–Šw. Illustrations in Dutch books and copperplate prints were used as models for artists interested in western techniques. Oil painting was simulated with thick, colored paint and artists such as Shiba Koukan Ži”n]Š¿ (1747-1818) produced copperplate etchings. Early proponents were the *Akita ranga H“c—–‰æ painters who helped to introduce their style to Edo where Shiba Koukan became an innovative student of things Dutch and one of the foremost disseminators of European science in Japan at that time. Edo soon became a major center of activity for Dutch studies and western paintings influencing a number of artists including Aoudo Denzen ˆŸ‰¢“°“c‘P (1748-1822), Tani Bunchou ’J•¶è (1763-1840) and Watanabe Kazan “n•Ó‰ØŽR (1793-1841). *ukiyo-e •‚¢ŠG artists were also influenced by western art. These included Okumura Masanobu ‰œ‘º­M (1686-1764), who is credited with having invented the ukiyo-e (perspective print) to Katsushika Hokusai Š‹ü–kÖ (1760-1849) and Utagawa Kuniyoshi ‰Ìì‘–F (1797-1861). Western painting techniques particularly influenced the development of the landscape print in the 19c.
In Kyoto, Maruyama Oukyo ŠÛŽR‰ž‹“ (1733-1795) created perspective prints called *megane-e Šá‹¾ŠG during his formative period as an artist. Oukyo was one of many artists whose interest in *shaseiga ŽÊ¶‰æ (drawings from life) was influenced by Dutch scientific books. Wakasugi Isohachi Žá™ŒÜ\”ª (1759-1805), Araki Jogen r–Ø”@Œ³ (c.1773-1824) and Kawahara Keiga ìŒ´Œc‰ê (c.1786-c 1860) are considered to be important and individualistic artists of western paintings in Nagasaki. Also worthy of mention are the *kara-e mekiki “‚ŠG–Ú—˜, official artists for the shogunate in Nagasaki, whose duties included the copying of imported paintings.
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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