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Nagasakiha@h
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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A term used to group a number of artists and artistic styles associated with the city of Nagasaki from the 17c through 19c. During this period, Nagasaki was the only port town in Japan open to foreigners for trade and residence. Consequently, Nagasaki paintings and prints while varied in style and theme, always reflected in some way the influence of Dutch and Chinese art, which arrived by way of merchant vessels. Within the general term Nagasakiha, there are a number of distinct categories:

1@Woodblock prints, created for the domestic tourist trade, which were designed to satisfy the curiosity of Japanese visitors regarding the mysterious and generally unseen foreigners. See *nagasaki hanga ʼn.

2@Paintings created by the official government appraisers of foreign art. See *kara-e mekiki Gڗ.

3@Bird-and-flower painting inspired by the Chinese artist Shen Nampin (Jp: Shin Nanpin _; approximate dates 1682-ca.1780). See *Nanpinha _h.

4@Works of individualists who experimented with Western techniques and perspective. Wakasugi Isohachi ᐙ܏\ (1759-1805), for example, pioneered studies of European techniques such as oil painting. Kawahara Keiga 쌴c (1786-1860?) was an important assimilator of Western style. Araki Jogen rؔ@ (ca. 1773-1824) is also considered to be in this group despite his affiliation with the kara-e mekiki.

5@Portraits of Oubaku @ monks, daimyou 喼, warriors, and Chinese interpreters painted in the Ming portrait style by professional artists such as Kita Genki 쑽K (fl. 1664-98). See *oubakuga @.

6@Calligraphy, Ming figure painting and literati ink painting which was introduced by Oubaku @ monks such as Itsunen R (Ch: Yiran; 1601-68). This group is often called kangaha h. See *oubakuga @.

7@*nanga or literati painting in the Southern Chinese style, which was introduced by visiting Chinese such as I Fukyuu ɛt (Ch: I Fuchiu or I Hai; 1698- after 1747), who made a series of journeys to Nagasaki from 1720-47. Other visitors were Hi Kangen , Hou Seiko , and Kou Kaho ]ҕ. Kou arrived in Nagasaki in 1804 and instructed the Japanese painters Hidaka Tetsuou S (1791-1871), Kinoshita Itsuun ؉_ (1799-1866) and Miura Gomon OY (1809-60). Many Nagasaki painters adopted characteristics of some or all of these styles, the result of studying at a variety of schools. In addition, the influence of these various Nagasaki painters spread widely throughout Japan. Gion Nankai _C (1677-1751) was influenced by the Oubaku @ monks and Yanagisawa Kien 򟽉 (1706-58) was one of many painters who were introduced to the art of the Nanpin school. Major artists such as Muruyama Oukyo ~R (1733-95), Shiba Koukan in] (1747-1818) and Tani Bunchou J (1763-1840) were also affected by the various streams of painting, both Chinese and Western, which flowed out of Nagasaki. The list of artists and craftsmen who, directly or indirectly, were affected by the Nagasaki painters is long, but the importance of this influence ended after Japan opened to the West. In the mid-19c increased contact with foreigners through new port cities such as Yokohama l resulted in a fading of the mystique of the foreigner and access to foreign knowledge and techniques in general was greatly increased. With these developments, Nagasaki declined in importance as a route through which the Japanese could learn about foreign art.
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