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hide@”è“`
KEY WORD :@architecture / buildings & structures
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Markers set at intervals along a mountain trail by ascetic monks called yamabushi ŽR•š or shugenja CŒ±ŽÒ. Many of the monks belonged to the order of shugendou CŒ±“¹, a sect of Buddhism that is dedicated to achieving mystic powers by its teachings of ascetic practices in the mountains. By the mid-Kamakura period stone tablets *itabi ””è, were inscribed with Buddhist texts by the monks. The top of the monument became pyramidal in shape. The rear side is flat. Two grooves are also carved beneath this part. The shaft differs from ordinary stone tablets because over half the stone is cut out about 1/5 or 1/6 of the way down from the groove at the top. The lower part is rough stone and is sunk into the ground. . The ascetic practices followed were connected with the chief mandala *mandara ™Ö䶗… of Esoteric Buddhism mikkyou –§‹³, the Mandala of the Womb World *Taizoukai mandara ‘Ù‘ ŠE™Ö䶗… (Sk. Gabha-dhatu mandala) and the Mandala of the Diamond Realm *Kongoukai mandara ‹à„ŠE™Ö䶗… (Sk. Vajra-dhatu Mandala). A stone with a pyramidal top is associated with the Diamond Realm; one with a flat top is called sanroufuda ŽQâĎD; one with a bulbous onion-shaped top represents the Womb World. The origin of hide is presumed to have derived from the necessity of the ascetic priests to leave proof of their religious journeys up the mountains. At first they cut down trees and smoothed the surface of the stump in order to inscribe for future generations their names, dates, and the deities invoked. By the early Kamakura period, tall logs were used as hide and called enboku hide ‰~–Ø”è“`. Flat wooden boards were also prepared before the journey, carried, and set into the ground, but they decayed quickly. From the latter 13c onward stone was used preferred. Examples: Nyohouji Hide ”@•óŽ›”è“` (1276), in Fukushima prefecture, and Kouyasan Oku-no-in ‚–ìŽR‰œ‰@ (1276), in Wakayama prefecture, Myououin –¾‰¤‰@ (Muromachi period) in Shiga prefecture.
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