@
Edo jidai@]ŒËŽž‘ã
KEY WORD :@art history / general terms
@
Less commonly, *Tokugawa jidai “¿ìŽž‘ã. The Edo period, the time in which the Tokugawa Shogunate (Tokugawa bakufu “¿ì–‹•{) controlled Japan from its capital in Edo (present-day Tokyo). Though the founder of the dynasty, Tokugawa Ieyasu “¿ì‰ÆN (1542-1616), won an important victory at Sekigahara ŠÖƒ–Œ´ in 1600 and was named shougun «ŒR in 1603, it was not until 1615 that he was finally able to destroy the Toyotomi –Lb family and gain complete hegemony. And since the influence of the art of the previous Momoyama period was still strong at the beginning of the Edo period, art historians also use 1615 as the starting year of the Edo period. For more than 250 years (fifteen generations of Tokugawa shougun) Japan enjoyed a period of peace and prosperity. Various art forms flourished during the period. Kanou school artists *Kanouha Žë–ì”h continued to dominate important shogunal comissions in the first half of the 17c Nijoujou “ñðé (1624-26) and Tokugawa Ieyasu's mausoleum Nikkou Toushouguu “úŒõ“ŒÆ‹{ (1636) were rebuilt and refurbished with grand artwork by Kanou Tan'yuu Žë–ì’T—H (1602-74) and members of his painting atelier.
The Rinpa school *Rinpa —Ô”h traces its ancestry back to the Soutatsu @’B of the Momoyama period , but it flourished in the early Edo period under Ogata Kourin ”öŒ`Œõ—ԁ@(1658-1716) and the patronage of the wealthy merchant class.
Other important schools and artistic tends developed in the 18c and 19c. Western style painting *youfuuga —m•—‰æ was popularised by Hiraga Gennai •½‰êŒ¹“à (1728-80) and Shiba Koukan Ži”n]Š¿ (1747-1818). The Maruyama Shijou school *Maruyama Shijouha ‰~ŽRŽlð”h was founded by Maruyama Oukyo ‰~ŽR‰ž‹“ (1733-95) and noted for its development of realism.
Japanese scholars and intellectuals, enamoured with the Chinese idea that calligraphy and painting were accomplishments suited to a literate and moral person studied Confucian texts , literature, poetry and practiced calligraphy and painting. Such art was termed *nanga “ì‰æ or *bunjinga •¶l‰æ and was engaged in by a great many artists, including Gion Nankai ‹_‰€“ìŠC (1677-1751), Yanagisawa Kien –ö‘òŸ½‰€ (1704-58) and Sakaki Hyakusen œdé•Sì (1697-1752). They were followed by Ike no Taiga ’r‘å‰ë (1723-76) and Yosa Buson —^ŽÓ•“‘º (1716-83). Although it was traditionally accepted that such artists in China did not paint for money, in Japan many literary artists made their living by selling their work becoming, in a sense, professional painters.
Paintings and woodblock prints of courtesans and *kabuki ‰Ì•‘Šê actors were popular among both merchants and samurai. Called *ukiyo-e •‚¢ŠG, such work was produced by a plethora of artists including Hishikawa Moronobu •HìŽté (1618-94), Torii Kiyonobu ’¹‹´M (1664-1729), Suzuki Harunobu —é–؏tM (1725-70) Katsushika Hokusai Š‹ü–kÖ (1760-1849 ) and Andou Hiroshige ˆÀ“¡Ld (1797-1858.)
The limitation of foreign influence due to the government's seclusionist policy was compensated for by the rise of the merchant class and its energetic demand for articles of beauty. Government patronage during the period was also significant. 1867 marks the beginning of what has become modern Japan.

Chronology of the Edo period:

Early Edo period:
1)@1615-51 [*Kan'ei bunka Š°‰i•¶‰»]
2)@1652-87 (Kanbun Š°•¶ era: 1661-73)
3)@1688-1715 [*Genroku bunka Œ³˜\•¶‰»]

Late Edo period:
4)@1716-ca. 50 (Kyouhou ‹•Û era: 1716-36)
5)@ca. 1750-ca. 1800 (Kansei Š°­ era:1789-1801)
@@(1804-30) [*Kasei bunka ‰»­•¶‰»]
6)@ca. 1800-67 (bakumatsu –‹––)
@
@

@
REFERENCES:
@
EXTERNAL LINKS: 
@@
NOTES
@

(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
ŒfÚ‚̃eƒLƒXƒgEŽÊ^EƒCƒ‰ƒXƒg‚ȂǁA‘S‚ẴRƒ“ƒeƒ“ƒc‚Ì–³’f•¡»E“]Ú‚ð‹Ö‚¶‚Ü‚·B
@