|KEY WORD : art history / paintings|
|Lit. ink play. Ch: moxi. The literati conception of painting as a form of self-expression, meant to convey ideas beyond words or merely descriptive images. As such, bokugi, like calligraphy, reflects the personal qualities of the artist. The emphasis on abstraction, expressive quality of line, and individuality is related to the *ippin 逸品 (Ch: yipin) or untrammeled style of painting. The theory behind painting as ink play developed in the coterie of scholars centered around Su Shi (Jp: So Shoku 蘇軾; 1036-1101). Bokugi is exemplified in the paintings of Wen Tong (Bun Dou 文同; 1018-79), Mi Fu (Jp: Bei Futsu 米ふつ; 1051-1107), and his son Mi Youren (Jp: Bei Yuujin 米友仁; 1072?-1151?). In addition to landscapes, common themes for ink play are the the ink plum *bokubai 墨梅; ink orchid *bokuran 墨蘭; and ink bamboo *bokuchiku 墨竹. Painters of Daoist and Buddhist eccentrics *doushakuga 道釈画, also adapted aspects of bokugi to their figure subjects. In Japan, both painter-priests of the Muromachi period and literati artists *bunjinga 文人画, of the Edo period made use of the techniques and attitudes associated with bokugi.|
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