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bokuran@n
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Ch: molan. Paintings of wild orchids rendered in *sumi n ink. Related to paintings of ink bamboo *bokuchiku n|, and ink plum *bokubai n~. The wild orchid has been associated with the virtues of high-minded gentlemen since the Eastern Zhou dynasty, when poet Qu Yuan (Jp: Kutsu Gen ; ca. 340-280 BC) praised the frail, modest bloom, delicate fragrance, and appearance of the plant in unobtrusive places. The wild orchid is counted among the *shikunshi lNq (four gentlemen). Its long, smooth leaves are well-suited to expressive rendering in ink wash *bokugi nY. Monochrome paintings of orchids date from the Northern Song dynasty, but became popular with painters of the Southern Song dynasty and Yuan dynasty such as Zhao Mengjian (Jp: Chou Mouken Ќ; 1199-1295), and Zhao Mengfu (Jp: Chou Moufu Ђ; 1254-1322), who used the image to symbolize China under alien Mongol rule. The Zen T monk, Xuechuang (Jp: Sessou ᑋ; ?-1349?), combined the orchid with rocks, bamboo, and old trees in a hanging scroll painting in the Imperial Household Agency, Tokyo he also wrote a treatise, Hualan Bifaji (Jp: GARAN HIPPOUKI 旖M@L) on the flower. Ink orchid painting came to Japan in the 14c and was a favorite subject of the Zen priest painters, Tesshuu Tokusai SM (?-1366) and Gyokuen Bonpou ʂ񞐖F (?-1420?). The theme, as revived by *nanga painters in the 19c, is exemplified in several paintings by Tsubaki Chinzan ֒֎R (1801-54).
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EXTERNAL LINKS: 
rankei douhou-zu ~F} at Tokyo National Museum@@
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