|KEY WORD : 1 architecture, 2 art history / general terms|
1 Lit. Japanese style architecture. The architectural techniques and styles
introduced from China during the Tang dynasty and their gradual Japanization
from the 8c through the 12c. The expression wayou architecture was coined
during the Kamakura period in order to distinguish what had become
traditional Japanese architecture for the Japanese in contrast to the new styles
introduced from China at the end of the 12c. Characteristics of Japanese architecture
before the introduction of new styles were simplicity, conservative use of ornamentation,
predominance of natural, untreated timbers and often plain white plastered walls,
low ceilings, enclosed intimate spaces and simple, curved lines. The hidden roof
structure *noyane 野屋根, a
Japanese invention, was first realized over the aisles *hisashi
廂, surrounding the core *moya
母屋, at the rebuilding of the lecture hall *Daikoudou
大講堂 at Houryuuji, 法隆寺, completed in 990. The slope of the base rafters *jidaruki
地垂木, could be constructed with a gentle incline allowing more light to penetrate
beneath the eaves, while the hidden rafters were made steeper to achieve the easy
run-off of rainwater. Wayou architecture without influence from the new
styles can be found more frequently in the Kansai 関西 region.
2 A style in art that represents the Japanese self or ideal. The precise definition or pin pointing of an origin for the expression is, given its nebulous nature, impossible. However it is used in contrast to *zenshuuyou 禅宗様, which describes the Chinese style it can be said to both an assertive and a defensive description of Japanese style. The Amida Nyoraizou 阿弥陀如来像 in Byoudouin *Hououdou 平等院鳳凰堂 (1053), Kyoto, is often cited as a good example of wayou. See *Jouchouyou 定朝様.
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