Kotokuraku 胡徳楽
KEY WORD : art history / sculptures
Dance of the Virtuous Barbarians, a piece in *bugaku 舞楽 and a term for masks representing inebriated, long-nosed "barbarians" used in the performance. Classification (for terms see bugaku ): A quiet dance hiramai 平舞 of the Right u-no-mai 右舞 introduced from Korea komagaku 高麗楽. Kotokuraku has a cast of four to six barbarians, a host kenpai 勧杯, and a wine cup bearer heishitori 瓶子取, thus three different masks are used. The performance of kotokuraku entails a skit enacting the visit of barbarians to the house of a native (Japanese) where they are served wine by a rascally wine-bearer. When sufficiently drunk, the barbarians rise and begin to dance. The undulating movements of the dance makes their noses swing back and forth. The nose of one, however, does not budge, for this barbarian has been cheated of his drink by the wily wine-bearer, who staggers off stage completely soused. Generally the kenpai wears a layered costume appropriate for unmasked roles including a winged lacquer hat, and dons a paper mask *zoumen 蔵面. There is, however, a wooden mask labeled kenpai in Tamukeyama Jinja 手向山神社 (1160), Nara. The wine-cup bearer heishitori is a dark, pug-nosed, leering fellow who wears a simplified layered costume with embroidered vest. The fine 13c mask at Tamukeyama Jinja appears rather similar to emimen 咲面 (see *Ni-no-mai 二ノ舞); indeed records suggest that it was possible to use an emimen mask for the role. The barbarians wear Kotokuraku masks, striped hoods and layered costumes kasaneshouzoku 襲装束. The masks fall into four groups. The earliest ones, at Houryuuji 法隆寺, probably made in the mid Heian period, are large, sedate, and bear medallions in the center of their foreheads. A second type also at Houryuuji, and of a somewhat later date has a long immobile nose that swerves to the right. The carving is full and fleshy. The third group consists of the most sophisticated Kotokuraku masks which date from the late Heian period, some at Houryuuji, some at Tamukeyama Jinja. The red-brown faces of these glisten with fun, and the lips part in a broad smile that reduces the eyes to long slits. The high eyebrows help to emphasize the large drooping and moveable nose, attached to the mask by means of a cord. Finally, there are later, Muromachi and Edo periods examples.

*Suiko 酔胡, *Konju 胡飲酒, *bugakumen 舞楽面 

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