kamayadate 釜屋建て
KEY WORD : architecture / folk dwellings
A particular type of divided roof style *buntougata 分棟型, where the raised floor living rooms, kyoshitsubu 居室部, constituted one building and the earth-floored area *doma 土間, a second. Found in farmhouses, nouka 農家, of the Edo period in the Mikawa 三河 district of Aichi prefecture and the western extremity of Shizuoka prefecture. The two buildings were contiguous and together functioned as a single dwelling unit. The roof ridges *mune 棟, of the two buildings were at right angles to each other; the raised-floor living area had an entrance on the non-gable side *hirairi 平入, and the earth-floored area doma had an entrance on the gabled side of the building *tsumairi 妻入. A large valley gutter drained the vulnerable gap where the two structures met. The earth-floored area was called *kamaya 釜屋 in Mikawa and W. Shizuoka, which accounts for the name kamayadate. The kamaya functioned as a kitchen but also contained a stable *umaya 馬屋. Since the beam-span direction *harima 梁間 of the main dwelling house matched the ridge direction *ketayuki 桁行, of the kamaya, the plan was at first sight identical to that of a conventional, horizontally aligned building sugoya 真屋. The plan of the living area was usually of the four room, cross-in-square type, ta-no-jigata 田の字型. To judge from surviving examples, this style became widespread in farmhouses during the mid-18c.


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