chanoyu-no-dougu 茶湯の道具
KEY WORD : architecture / tea houses
Implements necessary for the tea ceremony. Generally classified according to: 1 implements to be displayed in alcove, 2 Procedures and implements used for tea ceremony 3 cake dishes and servers, 4 implements for making a fire, 5 implements for handling charcoal, 6 implements used for lunch served in a tea ceremony room. Among these, one to four are of most importance.

1 At a formal tea ceremony a scroll *jiku 軸 is hung in the alcove *tokonoma 床の間, from the beginning of the ceremony until nakadachi 中立ち. The scroll may be replaced at the recess by a vase *hanaire 花入, of flowers hung on a nail in the center wall of the alcove. Such a formal tea ceremony is rare now and usually a scroll and flower vase are placed together in the alcove. The flower vase is either hung on a special nail called the flower nail *hanakugi 花釘, on the alcove pillar, or placed on a wooden plaque, shiki-ta 敷板, on the straw mat in the alcove. This method of decoration is called multi-decoration morokazari 諸飾. See *zashikikazari 座敷飾.

2 Tea procedures rank from the most formal shin 真, to a semi-formal method gyou 行 to the informal sou 草 (see *shin-gyou-sou 真行草, *wabi わび). The implements used for them and the decorations change accordingly. However, in each case, the implements are displayed and must be positioned so that the host can perform the ceremony with ease. The host is seated on the rear half of the mat. If the fireplace *dero 出炉, is on the front corner of the host's mat, usually he is seated diagonally toward it. When the fire box iriro 入炉 or *furo 風炉 is used, the host is seated facing the firebox so the front edge of his knees are at the center of the long side of the mat. In the most formal cases, the stand for utensils used for the tea ceremony *daisu 台子, is placed in the center of front half of the host's mat. A stove, furo, is used from May to October and a hearth cut in the floor kiriawase-no-furo 切り合せの風炉 is used from November to April. Kettles *chanoyugama 茶湯釜, are made in a variety of shapes including circular, square, bag-shaped and Fuji-mountain shape. Lids are often made in unusual shapes. There is a stand for the kettle lid *futaoki 蓋置. Kettle stands kamashiki 釜敷 are made of bamboo or mino paper *minogami 美濃紙. A kettle hanger is called *jizaikagi 自在鈎. A slop basin mizukoboshi 水翻. Water containers, *mizusashi 水指, are made in a great variety of shapes. There is also a ladle stand shakudate 杓立, a ladle *hishaku 柄杓 and a pair of fire tongs hibashi 火箸. A set that includes all the utensils named above is called kaigu 皆具. On top of the daisu is a tea caddy *chaki 茶器, tea bowl *chawan 茶碗, and a small cloth or napkin *chakin 茶巾. The tea whisk *chasen 茶筅, is placed inside it, and a teaspoon *chashaku 茶杓 is placed across it. A daisu like shelf *tanamono 棚物, is shorter than the rectangular daisu. It may be square or round but it is small as it is placed on the front half of the host's mat together with the furo. In this case, the portable fireplace is on the kitchen side and a small shelf is on the side of the guest's mat. However, when there is a sunken fire box, there is no portable fireplace and the small shelf is placed where the tea container and water pitcher are displayed. When the tea ceremony room is most simplified there is no small shelf and either a square sunken fire box, *ro 炉, is cut in the floor or a portable fireplace is put in the tea room. The position of the portable fireplace is often on the kitchen side, but it could be in the center depending on the season. In that case the host carries all the necessary implements into the room. The order of carrying implements into the tearoom and their positions in a 4 1/2 mat room *yojouhangiri 四畳半切, is generally as follow: First the pitcher, carried with both hands is brought in and placed in the center of front half of the host's mat. If there is a portable firebox, it would be on the side. Next the tea container in the tea master's right hand, and tea bowl together with small cloth, tea whisk and tea spoon are carried in the left hand. These things are placed in front of the pitcher. Finally, the container for discarded water *kensui 建水, with a kettle cover holder inside it and a water ladle across the top is carried in the left hand. The teamaster then sits down at his place. Other implements besides those mentioned above are *furosaki byoubu 風炉先屏風, a removable partition placed behind the portable fireplace. This is used only in large rooms *hiroma 広間. There is also a small wrapper *fukusa 袱紗, which is necessary for the tea ceremony. The host enters the tea room with this tucked in his sash. It is used for cleaning the tea container and tea spoon or for the lid when removed from the kettle. There are called chadougu 茶道具.

3 Kashiki 菓子器. Cake servers. The most formal type is called fuchidaka 縁高. It has a high rim and is like a nest of boxes, juubako 重箱. The number of boxes provided equals the number of people, and one cake is put in each layer. When the cake is served warm, it is put in a covered server *jikirou 食籠. In this case, the guests are served from one server. However, in most cases, they are served from a bowl without a cover. Materials and shapes are diverse. Guests use a flat wooden pick kuromoji 黒文字, or chopsticks to take the cake which they place on a stiff paper dish, kaishi 懐紙, to hold the cake which the guest brought. The guest should sit upright and back from the front edge of the mat.

4 Tougu 灯具. At the present electric lights are used in a tea ceremony room, but rape oil and wick on a small dish were used before the advent of electricity. For use in tea ceremony room there was tankei andon 短檠行灯, a short portable lantern which consisted of a stand, a post and an iron ring attached near the top of the post for a dish to be placed upon it. It was covered with paper on the outside. In the tea garden *roji 露地 a portable tea garden lantern roji andon 露地行灯 was composed of a bottom board, a stand and four sides covered with paper and a handle on the top. It was placed on the ground.


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