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yakimono-no-tou@Ä•¨‚Ì“ƒ
KEY WORD :@architecture / buildings & structures
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A bisque ware or unglazed pagoda. Plain unglazed small pagodas are called deitou “D“ƒ, meaning mud pagodas. Small, votive pagodas made of simple materials such as mud and sand were made in India, China and Korea. Pagodas made with tiles were unearthed at the ancient site of Tachibanadera ‹kŽ›, Asuka period in Nara and at the site of the Kitanohaiji –k–ì”pŽ›, Hakuhou period in Aichi prefecture. The practice of making small devotional pagodas continued in the Heian period especially when the Fujiwara “¡Œ´ family dominated the court in Japan, and through the Kamakura period. They were made as memorials for the dead as symbols of hope and for the recovery from illness. The diaries written during these centuries record incredibly large numbers being made.
Different styles are associated not only with various periods but various localities. These include the inverted bowl style fukubachishiki •š”«Ž®, created during the Hakuhou period at Tachibanadera; a stepped type dantoushiki ’i“ƒŽ®, found at the Kitanohaiji archaeological site; the *houtou •ó“ƒ style from the Fujiwara age in the Heian period, have been found in Nara, Wakayama, Shiga, Tottori, Okayama and Miyagi prefectures. The most popular pagodas during the Kamakura period were the *gorintou ŒÜ—Ö“ƒ type found in Yamaguchi and Wakayama prefectures and the *houkyouintou •óâ¸ˆó“ƒ found in Yamaguchi and Mie prefectures. During the Muromachi period, mud tablets with the letters kiriku ƒLƒŠƒN inscribed on them were also found in Nara at the Tachibanadera site and also at Hasedera ’·’JŽ›. The pagodas called tile pagodas refer to fired pagodas. Two fired pagodas in perfect condition called *gojuu-no-tou ŒÜd“ƒ or miniature five-storied pagodas were found at too different sites. One was excavated in Higashimurayama “Œ‘ºŽR in Tokyo and the other in Mikkabi ŽOƒ–“ú in Shizuoka prefecture. The main parts were fired separately and then assembled. They have no podia but rest on box like wooden stands. These pagodas are about 1.50m high. The one found in Shizuoka prefecture is unique as it has a fence around it and four Buddhist images made on the central pillar *shinbashira S’Œ. Although these two are the only perfect examples, many shards have been discovered at various sites throughout the country, usually at or near temples. Many of these fragments date from the Nara or Heian periods. Glazed miniature pagodas are uncommon but a famous seven-storied example dating from the Tang dynasty is stored in *Shousouin ³‘q‰@. It is glazed with the traditional colors rust, green and yellow. However, there are strong differences of opinion concerning whether it was made in Japan or China. At Omuro Ninnaji ŒäŽºm˜aŽ› and at Yamashina Bishamnondou ŽR‰È”ù¹–å“° both in Kyoto, 84000 pagodas were discovered at the former temple and a green glazed one found at the latter. All dated from the Edo period. An enormous number mud pagodas were unearthed at Kokubunji ‘•ªŽ›, in Gifu prefecture and Nara. At An'youji ˆÀ—{Ž› in Okayama prefecture, a shard of a houtou and of a hexagonal touba “ƒ”k were unearthed. At Joufukuji í•ŸŽ› in Hyougo prefecture, a gorintou was excavated. These were fired but not glazed.
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