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shakkei@،i
CATEGORY:@architecture / gardens
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Lit. borrowed scenery. The method of incorporating a distant vista into the composition of a garden. A river, the ocean, fields, forests, large trees, or even a building may all serve as shakkei, but the most frequently borrowed scene is a distant mountain. In gardens with shakkei, typically the arrangement of stones *shokusai A serve to draw the viewer's eyes to the borrowed scene. The origin of the method is unclear, but the concept is probably Chinese, as the term is found in the Chinese garden manual Yuanye (Jp; *EN'YA ). The manual classifies four types of shakkei: distant borrowing enshaku , adjacent borrowing rinshaku ׎, upward borrowing gyoushaku Ž and downward borrowing fushaku . The earliest Japanese uses of shakkei may be the view of Arashiyama R from Tenryuuji V and the view of Mt. Kinugasa ߊ} from Rokuonji . Shakkei are a key part of many 17c gardens. Some of the best-known shakkei gardens and their borrowed scenes include Entsuuji ~ʎ and Mt. Hiei b, Murin'an ׈ and Higashiyama R, both in Kyoto, Jikouin @ and the Tomio xY River , Isuien ː and the Great South Gate, Nandaimon, at Todaiji 厛, both in Nara , and Koki'an ËH and Sagami Bay, Kanagawa prefecture.
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