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Kou Sankoku@‰©ŽR’J
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Ch: Huang Shangu (1045-1105). One of the best-known calligraphers and poets of the Northern Song dynasty, depicted in several traditions of imaginary portraits. His real name was Tingjian (Jp:Teiken ’댘), but he also often used the name Luzhi (Jp:Rochoku ˜D’¼). Shangu was yet another pseudonym, an abbreviated form of Shangudaoren (Jp:Sankoku Doujin ŽR’J“¹l), which derived from his fondness for visiting the scenic Shangu temple. At first a successful scholar, he was appointed governor of Dapingzhou ‘啽B, but later was exiled to Xuanzhou éB. His exquisite calligraphy led him to be included among the four great disciples of Su Shi (Jp: So Shoku ‘hçg, known in Japan as *So Touba ‘h“Œš±; 1036-1101). Highly skilled in the gyou s (running) and sou ‘ (grass) scripts, Huang Shangu developed his own distinctive style of kai ž² (square) script (see *shin-gyou-sou ^s‘). His calligraphy was known in Japan from the late 12c. Huang is also included in the painting subject called Three Tasters *sansan-zu ŽOŽ_}. Moreover, Huang Shangus devotion to his mother led his being counted among the 24 Paragons of Filial Piety *nijuushikou “ñ\ŽlF. Huang Shangu was fond of wild orchids and this aspect of his personality was favored by painters who created the genre of Huang Shangu Admiring Orchids Sankoku Airan ŽR’Jˆ¤—–. It also led to his inclusion in the painting theme Four Favorites *Shiai Žlˆ¤. Other iconographic type themes include Hung Shangu Viewing Plums Sankoku Kanbai ŽR’JŠÅ”~, and Huang Shangu Riding a Mule Sankoku Kiro ŽR’J‹Ré†. Huang Shangu Viewing Seagulls Sankoku Kan'ou ŽR’JŠÏ‰¨ may result from confusion with the famous 4c calligrapher Wang Xizhi (Jp:*Ou Gishi ‰¤‹`”V) who is noted for watching waterfowl. Notable Japanese examples include paintings by Souen ‘v•£ (late 15c), Ogata Kourin ”öŒ`Œõ—Ô (1658-1716), a square plate by Ogata Kenzan ”öŒ`Š£ŽR (1663-1743, Tokyo National Museum), Ganku ŠÝ‹î (1749/56-1839) and Kanou Yasunobu Žë–ìˆÀM (1614-85).
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