|KEY WORD : art history / paintings|
|Lit. humorous books. A witty and humorous type of novel of the late 18c and 19c. The early kokkeibon were instructional, each containing a lesson to be learned. These included works such as: TOUSEI HETA DANGI 当世下手談義 (An Awkward Present-Day Sermon; 1752) by Fuurai Sanjin 風来山人 (1728-79), the pen name for Hiraga Gennai 平賀源内, a scholar and painter; and Sanjin's well-known works, NENASHIGUSA 根無草 (Rootless Grass) and FUURYUU SHIDOUKENDEN 風流志道軒伝 (The Dashing Life of Shidouken), which appeared in 1763. Later kokkeibon were influenced by *sharebon 洒落本 in terms of themes and portrayal of characters. However, unlike the sharebon which illustrated humor in the pleasure quarters, kokkeibon dealt with the everyday life of townsmen and their journeys. Witticisms and play on words created a humorous flavor. The books were published in *chuubon 中本 size. Representative kokkeibon are the TOUKAIDOUCHUU HIZAKURIGE 東海道中膝栗毛 (Footing It Along the Toukaidou, *Hizakurige 膝栗毛) by Jippensha Ikku 十返舎一九 (1765-1831), the first part of which appeared in 1802, and Shikitei Sanba's 式亭三馬 (1776-1822) UKIYOBURO 浮世風呂 (The World at the Bath-House; 1809-13) and UKIYODOKO 浮世床 (The World at the Barber Shop; 1813-14). Production of this type of book continued through the early Meiji period (late 19c). A kokkeibon contained illustrations as major components . There were illustrations similar to today's *manga 漫画, with an emphasis on the humor rather than illustrating the plot. Examples include the 1783 Mitate Karitatoezukushi 見立仮譬尽 by Chikujou Ikei 竹杖為軽. Illustrations were often mixed in with the text. In early works, the print designers names were rarely mentioned, but known illustrators of kokkeibon include Torii Kiyotsune 鳥居清経 (fl. 1757-79), Suzuki Harunobu 鈴木春信 (1724-70), Tachibana Binkou 橘岷江, Kitao Shigemasa 北尾重政 (1739-1820) and Ran'u 蘭雨. In the kokkeibon's most flourishiung period *ukiyo-e 浮世絵 print designers created many of the illustrations. These include the *Utagawaha 歌川派 artists Utagawa Toyokuni 歌川豊国 (1769-1825), Kuninao 国直 (1793-1854), Kunisada 国貞 (1786-1864), and Kuniyoshi 国芳 (1797-1861) as well as Kitagawa Yoshimaru 北川美丸 and Keisai Eisen 渓斎英泉 (1790-1848). There are also a number of cases where Ikku and others produced their own illustrations. The frontispieces and pouches in which the books were kept were also printed in color.|
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