|KEY WORD :@art history / paintings|
| Lit. Utagawa school. The most prolific school of
*ukiyo-e ¢G artists in the
late Edo period. The founder of the school, Utagawa Toyoharu
ÌìLt (1735-1814) produced prints of beautiful women *bijinga ülæ and actor portraits *yakusha-e ðÒG, but he became particularly famous for landscapes depicted in the western
perspective *uki-e G. The prosperity of the Utagawa school was established by his followers
Toyokuni L (1769-1825) and Toyohiro LL (1765?-1829). The great painter Toyokuni
caught the atmosphere of the time and successfully created a new, eclectic style
in prints of beautiful women and actors in which balance and harmony were important.
Although the Utagawa school is not highly regarded by modern scholars, the Utagawa
style boomed among its contemporaries. The school was so popular that it attracted
many disciples. Among Toyokuni's followers, Kunisada å (Toyokuni 3 OãL; 1786-1865),
who was known as a painter of actor portraits, and Kuniyoshi F (1797-1861), known
as a painter of *musha-e ÒG (warrior prints) were the most successful. Kuniyoshi was also popular as a
charicaturist. Utagawa Hiroshige ÌìLd (also known as Andou À¡ Hiroshige, 1797-1858) was
a disciple of Toyohiro. Hiroshige was best known for landscape prints, as represented
by "Fifty-three Stations on the Toukaidou" *Toukaidou
Gojuusantsugi C¹Ü\O (1833), and his gentle, intimate style, which
was a marked contrast to the dramatic, structural paintings of his rival, Katsushika
Hokusai ükÖ (1760-1849). Thus, Kunisada, Kuniyoshi, and Hiroshige (especially
after Hokusai's death) monopolized actor prints, warrior prints, and landscape
prints respectively, and the Utagawa school enjoyed its heyday in the world of ukiyo-e in the first half of 19c. Around the mid-19c, at the bakumatsu period, the Utagawa school artists worked on prints
of contemporary townscapes, which were considered to be the forerunner of illustrations
for newspapers. Being well versed in western painting techniques, Kuniyoshi and
his followers created a new genre called *yokohama-e ¡lG, prints depicting the scenery of Yokohama in which western objects and fashion
figured these having become popular after the opening of its port in 1859. Among
the followers of Kuniyoshi, Tsukioka Yoshitoshi ªFN (1839-92) and Kawanabe Gyousai
ÍçÅÖ (1831-89) are well-known. The lineage of the Utagawa school continues in
the present, and Yoshitoshi's followers include Kaburagi Kiyokata LØ´û (1878-1972)
and Itou Shinsui É[
Lineage of the Utagawa school.
Utagawa Toyoharu ÌìLt ---Toyohiro LL --- Hiroshige Ld --Toyokuni L --- Toyoshige Ld (Toyokuni 2) -- Kunisada å (Toyokuni 3) -- Kunimasa -- Kuniyasu À -- Kuniyoshi F --- Tsukioka Yoshitoshi ªFN - Kunitora Õ - Kawanabe Gyousai ÍçÅÖ --- Mizuno Toshikata ìNû --- Kaburagi Kiyokata LØ´û --- Itou Shinsui É[ .
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