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Utagawaha@‰Ìì”h
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Lit. Utagawa school. The most prolific school of *ukiyo-e •‚¢ŠG artists in the late Edo period. The founder of the school, Utagawa Toyoharu ‰Ìì–Lt (1735-1814) produced prints of beautiful women *bijinga ”ül‰æ and actor portraits *yakusha-e –ðŽÒŠG, but he became particularly famous for landscapes depicted in the western perspective *uki-e •‚ŠG. The prosperity of the Utagawa school was established by his followers Toyokuni –L‘ (1769-1825) and Toyohiro –LL (1765?-1829). The great painter Toyokuni caught the atmosphere of the time and successfully created a new, eclectic style in prints of beautiful women and actors in which balance and harmony were important. Although the Utagawa school is not highly regarded by modern scholars, the Utagawa style boomed among its contemporaries. The school was so popular that it attracted many disciples. Among Toyokuni's followers, Kunisada ‘’å (Toyokuni 3; 1786-1865), who was known as a painter of actor portraits, and Kuniyoshi ‘–F (1797-1861), known as a painter of *musha-e •ŽÒŠG (warrior prints) were the most successful. Kuniyoshi was also popular as a charicaturist. Utagawa Hiroshige ‰ÌìLd (also known as Andou ˆÀ“¡; 1797-1858) was a disciple of Toyohiro. Hiroshige was best known for landscape prints, as represented by "Fifty-three Stations on the Toukaidou" *Toukaidou Gojuusantsugi “ŒŠC“¹ŒÜ\ŽOŽŸ (1833), and his gentle, intimate style, which was a marked contrast to the dramatic, structural paintings of his rival, Katsushika Hokusai Š‹ü–kÖ (1760-1849). Thus, Kunisada, Kuniyoshi, and Hiroshige (especially after Hokusai's death) monopolized actor prints, warrior prints, and landscape prints respectively, and the Utagawa school enjoyed its heyday in the world of ukiyo-e in the first half of 19c. Around the mid-19c, at the bakumatsu –‹–– period, the Utagawa school artists worked on prints of contemporary townscapes, which were considered to be the forerunner of illustrations for newspapers. Being well versed in western painting techniques, Kuniyoshi and his followers created a new genre called *yokohama-e ‰¡•lŠG, prints depicting the scenery of Yokohama in which western objects and fashion figured these having become popular after the opening of its port in 1859. Among the followers of Kuniyoshi, Tsukioka Yoshitoshi ŒŽ‰ª–F”N (1839-92) and Kawanabe Gyousai ‰Í“ç‹ÅÖ (1831-89) are well-known. The lineage of the Utagawa school continues in the present, and Yoshitoshi's followers include Kaburagi Kiyokata “L–ؐ´•û (1878-1972) and Itou Shinsui ˆÉ“Œ[… (1898-1972).
Lineage of the Utagawa school.
Utagawa Toyoharu ‰Ìì–Lt ---Toyohiro –LL --- Hiroshige Ld --Toyokuni –L‘ --- Toyoshige –Ld (Toyokuni 2) -- Kunisada ‘’å (Toyokuni 3) -- Kunimasa ‘­ -- Kuniyasu ‘ˆÀ -- Kuniyoshi ‘–F --- Tsukioka Yoshitoshi ŒŽ‰ª–F”N - Kunitora ‘ŒÕ - Kawanabe Gyousai ‰Í“ç‹ÅÖ --- Mizuno Toshikata …–ì”N•û --- Kaburagi Kiyokata “L–ؐ´•û --- Itou Shinsui ˆÉ“Œ[….
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