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juuou@\‰¤
KEY WORD :@art history / iconography
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Ten Kings. The ten kings of hell who preside at the gates of the underworld, assigning souls to heaven or hell. The Buddhist idea of hell derived from the Taoist underworld headed by Taishanfuzhun (Jp: Taizanfukun ‘¾ŽR•{ŒN) and his ten attendants. By the Tang dynasty, this folk deity was associated with the Indian god Yama (Jp: *Enmaou 腖‚‰¤), the Lord of Death, and incorporated into popular Chinese Buddhism, and then imported into Japan during the Heian period. Various scriptures, including the 10c Chinese YUXIU SHIWANG SHENGQIJING —aC\‰¤¶ŽµŒo and slightly later Japanese JIZOU BOSATSU HOSSHIN INNEN JUUOU KYOU ’n‘ •ìŽF”­Sˆö‰\‰¤Œo, were created to support the idea of a Buddhist hell. The Ten Kings pronounce judgement a specific number of days after death, and each king is also associated with its true nature in the form of a Buddha *honjibutsu –{’n•§. The earliest known painting of the theme is a Song dynasty scroll found at Dunhuang (Jp: Tonkou “ÖàŠ now in the Musee Guimet, Paris). Professional Buddhist painters working in the port city of Ningpo (Jp: Ninpou ”J”g) in the 13c, such as Lu Xinzhong (Jp: Riku Shinchuu —¤M’‰; fl.ca. 1195-1276), Lu Zhongyuan (Jp: Riku Chuuen —¤’‡•£, Morimura Collection, Tokyo), and Jin Chushi (Jp: Kin Shoshi ‹àˆŽq, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), produced paintings of juuou which were exported to Japan. Korean paintings showing *Jizou ’n‘  and the Ten Kings were also exported to Japan. With the rise of popular sects and the cult of Jizou the fear of hell became a prominent feature in 13c Japanese Buddhism. Many temples built worship halls called enmadou 腖‚“°, with paintings or sculpture of the Juuou placed inside. A good example is the mid-13c Enmadou and sculpture group at Ennouji ‰~‰žŽ› in Kanagawa prefecture. Typically the Ten Kings are rendered in painting on sets of ten hanging scrolls or in ten wooden sculptures. They usually sit in front of desks, and wear the caps and robes of Chinese officials. However, their faces, distorted by bulging eyes and grimacing mouths, reveal their terrifying function. Often a sinner is shown kneeling before each king, as the king reads from a large scroll. Beginning in the Muromachi period, the juuou were paired in painting with their equivalent Buddhas. The Ten Kings are frequently depicted in paintings of the six realms of rebirth *rokudou-e ˜Z“¹ŠG. The Ten Kings and Enmaou in particular, were parodied by late Edo period artists such as Kawanabe Gyousai ‰Í“ç‹ÅÖ (1831-89). Figure: The Ten Kings/their day of judgement: honjibutsu 1 Shinkouou ‘׍L‰¤ (Ch: Qingguangwang)/ 7th day: *Fudou Myouou •s“®–¾‰¤. 2 Shokouou ‰]‰¤ (Ch: Chujiangwang) /27th day: *Shaka Žß‰Þ. 3 Souteiou ‘v’鉤 (Ch: Songdiwang) /37th day: *Monju •¶Žê. 4 Gokan'ou ŒÜŠ¯‰¤ (Ch: Wuguanwang) /47th day: *Fugen •Œ«. 5 Enmaou (Ch: Yanlowang) /57th day: Jizou. 6 Henseiou •Ï¬‰¤ (Ch: Bianchengwang)/67th day: *Miroku –íèÓ. 7 Taizan'ou ‘׎R‰¤ (Ch; Taishanwang) /77th day: *Yakushi –òŽt. 8 Byoudouou •½“™‰¤ (Ch: Pinglengwang) /100th day: *Kannon ŠÏ‰¹. 9 Toshiou “sŽs‰¤ (Ch: Dushiwang) /1st anniversary: *Seishi ¨ŽŠ. 10 Godoutenrin'ou ŒÜ“¹“]—Ö‰¤ (Ch: Wudaozhuanlunwang) /3rd anniversary: *Amida ˆ¢–í‘É.
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