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Heiankyuu@{
KEY WORD :@architecture / general terms
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Heian Imperial Palace, located in the northern part of the Heian Capital. Enclosed by clay walls, buildings included the Dairi (Imperial residence), blocks for ceremonies and various government offices. Information about the size and construction of the palace is contained in the Daidairi-zu } (The picture of Heian Imperial Palace) copied out during the Kamakura period, and the Daidairi-zu Koushou }l (Historical research on the Heian Imperial Palace) by Uramatsu Kozen őT (1797). According to these sources, the size of the palace was 384 jou (about 1.1km) from east to west and 460 jou (about 1.4km) from south to north, but recent studies indicate that the original palace was1.1km square with three gates on each side, and had a space of two chou (about 250m) between the northern side of the palace and Kyougoku Blvd to the north. It appears that the palace was extended to Kyougoku Blvd at the end of the 9c to accommodate the Ministry of Finance, Ookurashou 呠 storehouses, and an two additional gates were built, one on the east and one on the west side of the palace. In the central-south area were the administrative offices called Hasshouin ȉ@ or Choudouin @, with the banqueting area Buraku-in Ly@ to the west of them. The Imperial residence was located northeast of the administrative offices, and west of it there was an open space called "Utage no matsubara ̏". The purpose of this space remains unclear: it was either intended to be a pine grove for banquets, or to provide extra space for rebuilding the imperial residence. The central building of the palace was called the Shishinden a. Four buildings with north-south ridges were placed on the left and right sides in front of the Shishinden, enclosing the south garden of the Shishinden. The Seiryouden a, where the Emperors usually lived, was placed north-west of the Shishinden. The south garden of the Shishinden and the east garden of the Seiryouden were frequently used for ceremonial events. A building called Jijuuden ma was located just north of the Shishinden, and the two buildings were connected together as a pair, so the Shishinden was also known as Naden a (the south building). To the north of the emperor's residential quarters, twelve buildings were gradually built for the emperor's wives. Surrounding the residential area were various government offices. The Ministry of Finance was on the northern side,@the Imperial Guard Division, Konoefu ߉q{ and Hyouefu q{ on east and west sides of the Dairi, and central government offices such as the Prime Minister's Office Dajoukan and the Ministry of the Interior, Minbushou concentrated to the south-east. However, these offices were reorganized in each period from the 9c onwards. Between 8,000 and 10,000 people used these buildings. One reason for the numerous transformations of Heiankyuu was destruction by fire. The palace was first burnt down in 960, the first of many occasions when the palace had to be rebuilt. But many buildings were not rebuilt after a huge blaze in 1177, and the Dairi was not rebuilt after a fire of 1227. After that a building called Tsuchimikadodono ya, the forerunner to the present Kyoto Gosho s䏊, was made the imperial residence.
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