1. How to face “Fukushima”, as a researcher of Japan Studies?
It’s the fourth time having “SGRA Fukushima Study Tour”after the disaster which occurred on 11 March 2011 in Fukushima Prefecture.
As a scholarship student of Atsumi International Foundation of the year 2011, I experienced vividly a personal turmoil after what has become universally known as the Great East Japan Earthquake. I will never forget this experience. This time, I have joined “Takidashi(soup kitchen)” (distributing boiled rice) in Ishinomaki-City (Miyagi Prefecture) and my feeling of wanting to help people in the disaster-tricken area (as in Fukushima), was refreshed. I have also worried about how to face “Fukushima Nuclear Accident”, and the word “Resurrection” did not reach my heart at that time because they were still in tense situation for settling the accident.
After obtaining my doctorate degree in Korea, I was searching for “Cities in East Asia which are possible to coexist each other and be sustainable together” at a research team under the theme “Crisis and conversion of cities in East Asia in this globalization time”. I am also involved now in another research for Japan Studies analyzing countermeasures or recommendations against “Risk-scape” (scene of risks) which arise from nuclear power stations in the countries in North-Eastern Asia (Japan, China, Taiwan and Korea), I am especially concentrating on a research titled “Changes and Gropes of Japanese Civil Societies after the Fukushima Nuclear Power Accident”.
2. Pilot Studies in the winter of 2014
In December, 2014, I visited Iitate-Village for the first time. I had been reading reports by mass media and other materials, keeping my interest in “countermeasures by Fukushima”. I was at a loss for words when I saw at sites of the disaster a terrific scene of pyramids of flexible containers with decontaminated soil and leaves inside. Mr. Yoichi TAO, President(Representative) of NPO “Resurrection of Fukushima” explained to us the details from the beginning when he had met with the Iitate people up to the time when he established the NPO. Mr. Muneo Kanno、one of the disaster victims, talked about his determination toward the resurrection of the Iitate village, starting with getting out of the confusions immediately after the accident.
I was most impressed by the positive attitude of the farmers in the stricken areas, with volunteers and scientists who were conducting corporate works, together with efforts for “recovering the people’s trust in technologies”.
We often use words, such as “Anti-nuclear power stations” or “Abandoning nuclear power”, but it is a reality that the number of groups, together with the village inhabitants, which take a step toward this direction, is very few. It is absolutely necessary to cooperate with science and technology because radioactivity is invisible. In this point, I think NPO “Resurrection of Fukushima” is the most advanced group of scientists in the world.
At the exchange-of-ideas meetings at night, engineering experts, science researchers of agriculture and forestry and volunteers, had heated discussions about causes or settlements of disputes arising from accidents. I sympathize with the ideas that these experts spread their message to the world about the process and results which they got after their experimentation and discussions. In order to rise from such man-made disasters, people, especially victims of disasters must use such ideas from thwisdom of farmers and various specialists. I was especially impressed by their passion “to resurrect Fukushima using the power of scientific agriculture”. I thought science which would resurrect nature shall be a real science for human beings only. Mrs. Chieko Kanno presented me with warm socks for use in the snow-covered cold morning. In return, I helped with the “works in the vinyl-house” which the department of agriculture of Meiji University has installed. She spoke well of my works saying I have a sense of the science of agriculture. I like to do something to help their experiment for resurrection.
3. I joined again and worked together with the villagers in Autumn, 2015.
I joined this study tour this time, together with colleagues from Atsumi Foundation and others all with different nationalities, professional fields, gender and generation. When I heard news of heavy rainfall two weeks before the tour, I was very anxious about the situation. According to a mail from NPO “Resurrection of Fukushima”, roads surrounding the house of Mr. Kanno, which is the base office of “Resurrection of Fukushima”, was destroyed and everything including the experimental vinyl house and rice fields have been damaged. When I arrived at the site, one fifth of rice crop had been damaged by rain. We did our utmost effort to save the rice crop, but we were not fully successful. However, the roads and vinyl houses have been restored.
On the second day, we worked as a group and harvested as much as we could the damaged rice crop and subsequently joined harvest festival.
I met two young guys who were gleaning around me when I was doing unused farm-works. Mr. Sota Sato, who dreams of becoming the Iitate village headman in the future, spoke of his passionate aspiration, with mixed feelings of hope and fear for the resurrection of Iitate. Another guy, who came from Chiba-Pref. as a volunteer and joined the “rice harvest” for the second time, told me that he would pray for the “resurrection of Fukushima” while storing his gleanings in his house.
Frankly speaking,when I joined the tour for the first time last year, I had some doubt about the word “resurrection”. But, I have a strong feeling now that “resurrection power is a power of human beings”.
During my rice harvesting works in “rice cropping experiment”, I enjoyed cheerful talks, recalling my childhood or Japanese names of such worms as “crickets, earthworms, the Oriental mole crickets and newts which have red belly”. Such living creatures have been living in these rice fields. At this instance, I had a strong feeling of reconfirmation that this would be the first step toward resurrection of the land and fields where living creatures could survive. However, we heard the big noise of weed-removing machines being used in the other side of the fields. The workers who had been dispatched from the government for the decontamination operation involving very hard and dangerous jobs were all young. I wondered if there are no policies that could connect such hard and dangerous jobs to a joy for resurrection.
4. Overcoming severepresent condition,
In order to make good use of “our wishes for resurrection”, I would like to point out several contradictions. Radiological dosage in the disaster area is actually still high. But, there are big differences in degree among places or on conditions of the environment. In order to overcome such situation, it is urgently requested to convert the present system of decontamination to new system which can connect to suitable policies of government.
I watched a tv news in the Shinkansen when I was returning to Tokyo, and saw consumers who are living in cities and are pleased with TPP (Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Agreement) because they can buy foods from overseas at lower prices.
I think it is necessary to discuss not only a compulsory return to Fukushima policy by the government but also a “return policy which is really helpful for the agriculture of Fukushima and the inhabitants there”, or a return policy that takes into account “different regional problem (for example, in cases where only the aged have returned, or there are many required legal actions after returning) and specific return policy of Iitate”.
Lastly, I recall “nuclear power plant in Korea”where the most densely area in the world
in terms of land area and more than three millions of people are living within the range of 30 km. We have to watch out,for the way of resurrection for Iitate; how to make the best use of the results of the scientific and social experimentation which Japan has undertaken in the face of severe realities after nuclear power plant disasters.
(Asia Research Center, Seoul University)
Translatedby Kazuo Kawamura
English checked by Mac Maquito
SGRA Kawaraban 472 in Japanese (original)
Recent incidents by children are deeply related with smartphones in the possession of those children. In the latter part of the last summer holidays, a junior high-school student was arrested in Ehime Prefecture. He inflicted repeated violence on his classmate and displayed a picture of his violence using LINE. Similar incidents are being reported every day. But, it seems that no solution can be found to stop this practice. It may be because we cannot relate how present-day adults may have grown up owning smartphones, or had friends with smartphones. Internet surroundings for children, which are changing rapidly, cause bullying on the internet and result in suffering or commission of crimes.
I think such bullying, etc. are most important issues in the field of education. But, teachers cannot interfere in communities of LINE of children in the internet even if they are alert in schools. Or, even if parents can filter use of smartphones by their children, they cannot prevent uploading of pictures or movies. Once pictures or movies are uploaded, nobody (school, parents or the police) can delete these. I do not know how education can cope with such a situation.
In my home town in China, the situation is the same. Relations between children and smartphones are social problems. There are plenty of young internet users who feel uneasy if they are not always connected with friends on “WeChat” (微信) which is a similar application with LINE. Adults also use “WeChat” conveniently. We can use neither “Facebook” nor “Twitter” in China. But, we have many similar applications on which we can exchange our opinions. These are “Weibo”(微博) which is a mini-blog like twitter, “WeChat” mentioned above, and “QQ” Chine which can be said to have created an internet dependence in a big country. In the relation between children and smartphones, though there is no governmental law in China, such as the regulation in Japan, where children are required to leave their smartphones with their teachers during school hours. Enforcement of such regulations depends on the abilities of the particular education system or schools.
Only LINE is prominent in Japan, as people being left out of friends. But, new applications similar to LINE are being developed one after another as catch-up or overtake efforts. It is said to be fashionable among students to upload to internet materials which they took by smartphones, after being edited using available applications. The file size of of moving pictures is said to be too heavy to send. This problem, however, was solved by the speed of internet and increased use of Wi-Fi access.
The other day, I had a chance to talk with people who belong to a youth development association. According to them, on using smartphone, the problem is not only LINE but also “on-line-games” which are provided together with TV commercials, using entertainers as presenters. It seems to be difficult for the parents to drag their children away from the games partly because parents are also addicted. There is another trouble. Recently, there are a lot of problems associated with applications which are specialized to sell unwanted articles and are not regulated in their use by young people who are under 18 years old. Under the present situation, children under 18 can sell unwanted articles, using available applications, can get money and buy other prohibited materials. Under such circumstances, what adults can do is to just follow the situation that new applications, which are convenient and enjoyable for the young, are developed one after another. It may be a reality that we, adults, cannot grasp how such applications affect children adversely..
We cannot leave as it is the relations between children and the internet. First of all, parents have to know exactly the existing conditions. And, it will ideal that parents establish some moral standards and rules to guide their children to the proper use of smartphones in the house.
It is said that schools are asking parents to think about their own personal relations with smartphones, in other words, how adults use smartphones by themselves. We are ashamed to hear of parents’ improper use of smartphones. . We know of the time when there is nosmartphone. But, children do not know such time. This is the problem. Unintentional exchange on the internet maybe used as dangerous weapons (for example, blackmail) or to be involved in unwanted incidents. We have to guide our children to understand such situations and be able to protect themselves.
(Full-time Lecturer, Maebashi Kyouai Gakuen University)
Translated by Kazuo Kawamura
English checked by Mac Maquito
SGRA Kawaraban 470 in Japanese (original)
On July 18, 2015, SGRA Forum “Looking for New Paradigm of Japan Studies” was held at Waseda University. About 20 researchers of Japan Studies in East Asia, who are active at the front, assembled.
First of all, I like to express my profound gratitude to Atsumi International Foundation and to International Relations Research Institute for East Asia, Waseda University for giving me an opportunity for discussions and exchanges with other researchers.
At this forum, “Japan Studies as a means” were discussed as one of the main topics. I would like to summarize my study “Japan Studies as a means ”, especially “Japan Studies as a means in East Asia” in this forum.
“What is Japan Studies?” This is a difficult question to answer for researchers of Japan Studies in East Asia, especially China and Korea.
Many researchers, not only myself, aspire to be researchers of Japan Studies in East Asia for special reasons, apart from purely academic objectives. They have to undertake internal or spiritual self-examination, like staring at themselves through Japan, thereby reconfirming and recognizing themselves. When they lay their own individual experience, in other word “self” factor, over histories or development of their countries or races, they have to inevitably confront the process and development of their own histories
I can say that “Japan Studies” for researchers in East Asia is a double mirror which reflects themselves or nations and how they should be. In other words, “Japan Studies” is one of the internal conversation with themselves or nations, namely this is “Japan Studies as a means” for self-assessment.
Needless to say, such a way of thinking comes from geographical limitation of neighboring countries in East Asia and born on the basis of complicated development of their modern histories.
Specifically, Japan has achieved its modernization first in the Meiji Period in East Asia. Then, after the war, Japan has achieved economic and social development like Western countries through a period of peaceful development.
The process of Japanese modernization after the Meiji Period, even up to now, is based on familiar mutual relationship with East Asia. In this sense, Japan Studies in East Asia is about Japan and, at the same time, “Studies about East Asia” and “Studies of their own countries”. Researchers of Japan Studies in East Asia are unconsciously extending “Japan Studies as a means”.
Some people say that, as a misgiving or criticism, “Japan Studies as a means” is not genuine Japan Studies. But, as a researcher or a human being,we are forced to be strained mentally in a situation that there is a slight difference which can distinguish ourselves from others. So, I cannot look at such process as worthless because we cultivate and reform our spirit facing Japan as a subject of study. I think, by such severe strains and self-consideration of intention, we can reach to more unexpected results than just academic Japan Studies.
When we emphasize, in Japan Studies as a means, the side of forming one’s mind, researchers have to necessarily face histories of victims in the past. In other words, we have to face “reconciliation of history” for its own sake, which is the biggest issue in East Asia.
Reconciliation is a relief of wrongdoers’ mind. At the same time, reconciliation has to be a relief of victims’ mind. When we grope for its solution facing such a real issue, intellectual accumulation of Japan Studies as a means in East Asia and self-consideration of individual researchers will become spiritual nourishment and first step toward a solution.
As researchers of Japan Studies in East Asia reflect on the interrelationship of his own country with other countries in East Asia, Japan Studies in East Asia becomes East Asia Studies. Needless to say, such viewpoint covers the whole of East Asia and will jump to intellectual community in East Asia and finally to East Asia community which precede a reconciliation of history, as mentioned above.
Japan Studies as a means in East Asia is a result of Western modernization in Japan. It is essential for China, which is still in the process of modernization, to have numerous discussions with Japan which attained modernization first. In this sense, we can say “Japan Studies, as a means” never lose actuality and will increase its importance when we consider East Asia, Asia and the world.
Furthermore, we say “End of Capitalism” nowadays, and Japan, which has already accomplished modernization, is at a big turning point and is expected to go forward to establish a new civilization of post-modernization
So, “Japan Studies” and “Japan Studies in East Asia” will never lose its importance.
However, in order to ease such a tense atmosphere in Japan Studies in East Asia, it will be useful to approach “East Asia Studies as a means” after “Japan Studies as a means”.
If we acknowledge “East Asian Studies, as a means”, which is developed from “Japan Studies as a mean”, as valuable and if we point to intellectual community in East Asia, researchers of Japan Studies in East Asia will be requested to endeavor to sublimate, refine, systematize and share those means consciously, not unconsciously.
(Associate Dean, School of Government Peking University)
Translated by Kazuo Kawamura
English checked by Mac Maquito
SGRA Kawaraban 469 in Japanese (original)
I am in difficulties. I would like to mutter to myself “Nippon! Will this do ?” This is a story of public telephones. The decrease in the number of public telephones due to the spread of cellular phones is remarkable. The number of public phones in 2002 was 584,162 and it decreased to 195,514 in 2013. (“White Paper on Telecommunications” by the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications) I can easily imagine that if the number of public telephones decreases, the number of telephone booths will also decrease. This may be unavoidable. But I am a person who do not like to see the number of telephone booths reduced. I would rather like to see the number of telephone booths increase. The reason is not only for emergency purposes or for the aged but for modern reasons.
Using the telephone is obviously increasing despite the spread of “LINE”(free short-message service). Due to this change, I think we are becoming insensitive to noise. On the street or in the buildings, we are always getting or making phone calls. While travelling in trains, we often see a notice saying , “Please refrain from making phone calls in the train”, but are we prepared with an alternative place, such as on the noisy station platforms?, on the center, or even the edge of the street? All are not suitable due to the noise in these areas. It is also dangerous to engage in cellphone converstations while one is walking along quiet town, or even on residential streets, as voices can be easily heard by everybody in such quiet surroundings. When we talk over the telephone, our voice becomes louder compared with that in face-to-face conversation. I often hear noisy phone conversations by pedestrians who are passing by my house.
Then, how about in the buildings? Voices or sounds in the lobby of buildings resound well. We are often asked “May I have your full name?” by someone whether in a beauty salon or department store. I do not like to make a reservation of place or thing, ask setting aside items or claim saying my cellular phone number in such public places. I do not like to cause trouble to people around me. But, it will be more dangerous in deserted parts in the buildings. A guard may appear in the harsh times. How shall I enter the place against “No Entry” ? Hidden value of telephone booths may appear in such situation.
In the telephone booths, noise may be reduced to a certain level and we can see outside through the transparent glass wall of the booth. Using cellular phones does not arouse any suspicion. I sometime use a telephone booth to talk on the cellular phone instead of using public phones. In such a case it may be funny if people look at me from outside the booth and they actually laughed at me. So, what? I use a phone in a place for a phone. I am not doing anything wrong. People who laugh at me are insensitive to the manner of verbal conversation. How pitiable they are!
Telephone booths were often seen in old movies or in lobbies of high-class hotels. I like to increase the use of telephone booths. Revival of telephone booth would lead not only to improvement of manners but more importantly to show respect for fellow human beings.
(Atsumi International Foundation, Finished Institute of Policy and Cultural Studies, Graduated School of Chuo University)
Translated by Kazuo Kawamura
English checked by Mac Maquito
SGRA Kawaraban 468 in Japanese (original)
49th SGRA Forum -“Looking for New Paradigm of Japanese Studies”- was held on July 18 (Sat.), 2015 at “The Okuma Kaikan” (Okuma Memorial Hall) in Waseda University. About 20 researchers in Japanese Studies assembled in a conference room to have animated discussions on how new Japanese Studies should be conducted and presented. They are active at the front of the organizations representing China, Korea and Taiwan. Despite the multi-national attendance the forum was managed in semi-open style, There were nearly 100 participants, a number which was more than we expected.
Ms.Junko Imanishi, Managing Director of Atsumi International Foundation, representing SGRA, made an opening address. According to her, many people have misgivings about present Japanese Studies and worry about its future at the round-table discussions on Japanese Studies in the Asia Future Conference which had been held two times in the past. Taking advantage of this 49th SGRA Forum, we called out to organizations of Japanese Studies which represent China, Korea and Taiwan and the Japan Foundation and the International Research Center for Japanese Studies . As a result, to our surprise, many of the head or his assistant and researchers,who are active at the front lines, of each organization participated in this forum. We had to revitalize again the importance of the theme of the forum..
“Keynote Speech”by Dr. HIRANO Ken-ichiro
Professor Emeritus, Waseda University and Executive Director of “Toyo Bunko (Museum)” (The Oriental Library)
He emphasized the following two points in his keynote speech, titled “What we seek for New Japanese Studies in Asia”
(1) When we elaborate “shared space for wisdom” which spans across national borders, we have to consider interdependence, commonality and universality of culture. Specifically, we have to consider“Understanding of Mutual Relations” which means to first understand culture individually and then understand culture as a phenomenon of international common experiences. And we have to go further to “Multi-layer Understanding” of Japanese Studies in the context of Asia and other areas globally; and
(2) We better add a new theme - “Peace and Security ”in Japanese Studies hereafter. What we take up as Japanese experience after the War as an issue of peace would give an important suggestion to other countries of not only wrong consciousness about history. Peace can be built by strong will. Researchers of not only Japan but also of Asia can take part in the establishment of peace, in other words, East Asian Community through establishing intellectual community.
His speech suggests exactly “New Japanese Studies in Asia”.
Following his keynote speech, three panelists reported about the present and the future of Japanese Studies in their respective countries.They are :
Professor Yang Bojiang, Deputy Director, Institute of Japanese Studies, Chinese Academy of Social Science.
Dr. Shing-Ching Shyu, Director, Center for Japanese Studies, National Taiwan University, Dept. of Japanese Language & Literature,.
Cheol-Hee Park, Director/Professor of Seoul National University
Mr. Junichi Chano, Executive Director of The Japan Foundation Center for Global Partnership, reported about the present and prospect of their support to Japanese Studies.
In the afternoon, we had a round-table discussion in open style, composed of about 20 panelists including the above speakers. Young researchers in the conference joined.in the discussion.
Professor Liu Jie (Graduate School of Social Science, Waseda University) summarized the discussion as follows.
(1) As a cultural phenomenon, Japan is taking a growing interest and new research for Japan is growing. This is different from traditional Japanese Studies in a field of studies and personalities. Such a growing interest in Japan, however, is not always directly related with the concept of “deepening of Japanese Studies”. It will be important for “New Japanese Studies” hereafter how such growing interest link with “shared” Japanese Studies in Asia.
(2) “Japanese Studies as a method” in this area are especially important now. It has a meaning that Japanese Studies reflects, like a mirror, how a nation or people ought to be. In other words, it will be a way of self-recognition. We could confirm the importance of “Japanese Studies as a method” through this forum.
(3) I am sure that “Japanese Studies as a method”would link to reconciliation of East Asia, namely peace of East Asia. An important tool for the stabilization of reconciliation shall be “Wisdom”. By utilizing Japanese Studies as a method, we can establish not only “shared space of wisdom” and “community of wisdom”, but also reconciliation of the area. In other words, we can contribute to possibilities of peace and stabilization of the area.
(4) We could reach common consensus that we aim at building “Japanese Studies as shared wisdom in Asia”.
When we discussed how to utilize our network which was established this time, Park, Cheol-Hee, Director/Professor of Seoul National University suggested to hold a “Conference for scholars of Japanese Studies in East Asia”. We decided to form an environment to discuss what kind of works would be needed to be done and how to proceed with such works. We decided also that we send such message to the outside.
After this forum, we had a social gathering. Researchers, lecturers and panelists, together with scholarship students and Raccoon members (ex-scholarship students) talked and discussed until late at night.
More than 20 researchers and panelists for Japanese Studies in East Asia who are active and are at the forefront of this endeavor assembled at the forum this time. It was very lively, with an excellent moderator of the round-table discussion, Nam Ki-jeong, Professor, Seoul National University, Institute for Japanese Studies / SGRA member. The forum accomplished its objective despite the limited time.
I am deeply grateful to all the lecturers and panelists and I do hope that the network which has been formed this time would make a rapid progress hereafter.
Aggregate results of questionnaires of the day (in Japanese)
Photos of the day
(Written by Eiichi Tsunoda, Secretary General, Atsumi International Foundation)
Translated by Kazuo Kawamura
English checked by Mac Maquito
SGRA News in Japanese (original)
Recently, we have to keep a watchful eye on world affairs because of their seriousness.
As in the cases of the economic crisis of Greece, and the Islamic State terrorist organization, it is also difficult for us to foresee the perspectives of affairs in Asia, like the stock-price-crash in Chinese market and national security bills including the right to collective defense in Japan. As we think this state of affairs may change tomorrow, we have to follow the news all day long since getting up in the morning. I feel strongly that international relations, in economics, politics and diplomacy are related to each other, and I, myself, have to study and analyze everything beyond my own special fields.
During my busy time following events in a changing world, I happened to read an interesting news item in a half page in the Newsweek (Japanese edition) dated July 14. It says “Don’t shoot down a drone although it may obstruct your view”. This is a story of a man who flew a drone and a man who shot it down.The spread of small drones is very quick and legislation for it cannot catch up. According to an episode of an article, when a pilot flew a drone in his native town (in California), his drone was gunned down by a neighbor. It is said that the man who shot down the drone thought that it was a CIA spying drone. It became a legal case and the man who flew the drone got damage compensation.
Until quite recently, it was unnecessary for us to think of a scene that a drone come flying over our houses.There was a news item that a drone landed on the roof of the Japanese prime minister’s official residence. We have to be aware of a possible presence of a drone when we open the windows of our houses in Japan. Yes, this is not a story in the United States. According to an articles mentioned above, it an interpretation of the law against trespass remains uncertain when a drone flies over privately-owned land. There is a boundary like fence on land between houses, but, in there no such boundary in the sky. It is said legislationwill advance in the process of coping with individual cases. However, another news about a drone came in. We have to expedite its legislation without waiting for the cases.
About the same time that the Newsweek article came out, a picture of a drone which fires its gun is floating appeared in the YouTube. According to the news on TV, it was a teenage university student in the US who flew the drone. Drones, which have been developed for the purpose of people’s convenience and defense against danger are taking unexpected direction. Drones, which have already been flown in the world where there is no legislation yet, seem to tell us ironically that there is no borders in the sky.
An article about drones seems to be suggesting me that I have to make my researches always farsighted, and notconfined to my specialties. And, I have to keep watching hereafter the future of drones.
(Full-time lecturer,Kyoai Gakuen University)
Translated by Kazuo Kawamura
English checked by Mac Maquito
SGRA Kawaraban 467 in Japanese (original)
On July 11, 7th SGRA Café was held at “Terashima Bunko Minerva-no-Mori” in Kudanshita, Tokyo. Lecturer of the day was Mr. Lim, Chuan-Tiong, Assistant Researcher of Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica(Central Research Academy of Taiwan). Mr. Dele Sonja took the chair and Ms. Junko Imanishi, Director of SGRA, delivered the opening remarks. Then, Mr. Lim started his speech and I report it here briefly. He took up “The Sunflower Student Movement” in Taiwan and “The Hong Kong Umbrella Movement” as the most impressive incidents in the Chinese-speaking world in 2014. Those two incidents which symbolized modern Taiwan and Hong Kong were transmitted to the world with a strong impact by media with photos of students who occupied the legislative offices and the roads. Mr. Lim analyzed those incidents and their meanings for understanding the present situation of the Chinese-speaking world. Basing on this, he proceeded to the identities of the young in Taiwan and Hong Kong. According to Mr. Lim, there are special features in these two incidents. First of all, both movements were done by students who were motivated by their interest in politics and the gaps in societies. And, they took up the ways of nonviolence and democracy as their ideology. Both movements had similarity in using the internet which played an important role in their development. It was another characteristic that students of those movements supported each other strongly with deep interest. Mr. Lim has published a book titled “Identities and Politics of East Asia Frontiers; Okinawa, Taiwan and Hong Kong”. As you can easily see from this book, his key-words to understand those movements are “Distance between the center and the frontiers”. Those movements seem to be the same as the other movements in the Chinese speaking world if we consider that both movements are based on democracy. But there is a big difference．This is the phenomenon of “the rise of China” which is the most important recent change in the Chinese speaking world. The power balance among China (main land), Taiwan and Hong Kong has been changing now in the present Chinese speaking world. Hong Kong is losing its ec onomic centripetal force which they have had in the past. Taiwan is worried about how to maintain their relations with China which has been making an explosive development. We can catch a glimpse of such changes of relations in Chinese counter measures, especially toward the Hong Kong Umbrella Movement. According to Mr. Lim, Chinese counter measure toward the Hong Kong Umbrella Movement was stronger than expected. We can say, in a sense, this reflects a situation that the Chinese government is now being superior to Hong Kong because the economic importance of Hong Kong has now weakened. In the face of such realities, what students of Hong Kong now has to ask for is not only democracy itself and its procedures but also their standpoints in such a violently changing social situation. Such position can be applied to Taiwan’s situation too. Chinese counter measure against the Taiwan Sunflower Movement was moderate compared with Hong Kong. If we consider that an economic agreement between China and Taiwan was a cause of the Movements this time, what Taiwan students have been distressed about was not only appropriateness of process of political decision-making but also their anxieties of their standpoint in the era of China’s rising. Two movements this time reflect the instability of relations between China which is being centralized and Taiwan/Hong Kong which are becoming frontiers. So, it becomes impossible to understand correctly the movements this time as only a movement toward democracy by the youth. Distance between the center and the frontiers connect to an issue of identities which was the main theme of his speech this time. According to his research, most of the inhabitants in Taiwan and Hong Kong consider themselves as Taiwanese/Hong Konger. We cannot judge now a meaning of the consciousness of Taiwanese/Hong Konger and what such consciousness would suggest to the Chinese speaking world hereafter. It will be true that changes of social situation may change a phase of the problems in the Chinese speaking world and such tendencies will be accelerated hereafter. I analyzed this issue as above, but it will not be easy to show the way which the people in the Chinese speaking world should follow. On this point, Mr. Lim explained that it will be a key to how the Chinese government, who should play a leading part, recover reliance of the frontiers. Overall, I think his pointing this out will be a right direction, though we have to discuss concrete solutions one by one depending on the issues. An issue on identities of the young in the Chinese speaking world reflects realities of the areas directly. His speech was very exciting in the meaning that, by focusing on actual phenomenon, we have to think of how the Chinese speaking world should be. Photos of the day （Doctoral Course , the University of Tokyo） Translated by Kazuo KawamuraEnglish checked by Mac Maquito SGRA Café transmitted on July 23 in Japanese (original)
Japan, China and Korea, three countries in East Asia, are facing difficulties since 1970’s in regard to ‘understanding of histories’ and ‘territorial issues’. While Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) was being established, we can expect economic cooperation utilizing financing power. Japan, however, remains wary of transparency and publicity of AIIB in which China took an initiative. 70 years have passed since the end of the war, but a lack of mutual ‘’trust’ in Asia has greatly undermined political relations and cast dark shadow over people’s sentiments. In order to establish stable relations in this area, it is indispensable to bring about mutual trust, and we have to work out common ‘wisdom’ as a prerequisite. What is asked of intellectuals who have important responsibilities in these countries is to build a cross-border ‘shared space of ‘wisdom’.
In East Asia where people are not yet released from restrictions of histories, it will not be easy to build ‘shared space’ in the field of studies like “Chinese Studies” , “Japanese Studies” and “Korean Studies”. It is very important that each country is studying other countries in their own context. For example, the gap between an image about Japanese modern history by Chinese and Korean scholars and that of Japanese scholars became bigger in these 30 years. Chinese Studies are now very active and the stagflation of Japanese Studies in East Asia badly affects international relations in this area.
The problem exists in the Japanese side. First of all, in Japan, Japanese Studies in Asian studies were excluded and were shut in “Japanese Space”. It affected also Japanese Studies in the world and “uniqueness” of Japan resulted in being strongly emphasized. Needless to say, it is quite obvious that Japan has concerned with every fields in the development of Asia starting from wars and revolutions, modernization of society and economy, and cultural spread and development since the 19th century. Real Japanese Studies should broaden their horizon and step into Asian Studies .
There are problems too in Japanese Studies by China and Korea. For example, in China, many students have studied abroad in Japan, America and Europe since the end of the Qing dynasty to the age of the Republic of China. What they studied were courses that would be useful for the modernization of China. They tried to find what historical factors prevented China from achieving modernization. And they concentrated their efforts in re-explanation of Chinese histories, thoughts and cultures using the study system of the West. On the other hand, Chinese intellectuals have greedily absorbed a concept of modern ‘wisdom’ through Japan. They have never shown any interests in the studies of Japan and the West. Due to this, “Japanese Studies“ or “Asian Studies” in real meaning, have never been accomplished.
The second wave of Chinese scholars to study abroad which started in the 1980s followed these traditions. Students who specialized in social science were interested in modern history, politics, societies and economy of China. The number of students who intended to take up Japanese Studies were very few. Chinese studies in public organizations for education and researches in Japan were sufficient and offered good surroundings to foreign students. There was a tradition in Japan called “Sinology” (Chinese Study) led by Konan Naito and Naoki Kano before the War, which became “Chinese Studies” after the War. “Orient Academy” which was established in 1947, as a nongovernmental society, is still playing an important role in the development of Asian Studies in Japan and the civilization of countries of the East. Most of the scholars of the Japan Association for Asian Studies (JAAS) are researchers of Chinese studies. It is an urgent issue for universities in Japan which are positive in accepting foreign students to encourage Chinese and Korean researchers of Japanese studies.
Power of “shared wisdom” is necessary for the realization of reconciliation of the histories in East Asia and, at the same time, for restoring confidence among people to establish a stable cooperation. We cannot ignore the significance of encouraging Japanese studies that would lead to “shared wisdom”. Modern Japan has pursued a complicated way, together with Asian countries. Success and failure which Japan has experienced shall be sublimated to common property of Asia and it would result in overcoming of history. After the War, Japan experienced such a lot of problems as environmental issue, issue on aging population, energy problems and natural disasters. Japan have accumulated ample knowledge. It goes without saying that it is meaningful to direct such experience toward Asian common property. What Asia is asking for now to the present Japanese studies are “Experiences by Japan” both of failure and success.
Then, how to establish “Japanese Studies” as “Shared Wisdom in Asia”?
We have to overcome ‘histories’. In order to do this, first of all, conversations among researchers of ‘National Histories’ of China, Japan and Korea would be necessary. Interchanges among researchers for ‘National Histories’ contribute to ‘Asian histories’ which they can share, and to create an environment of ‘Asian Studies’ in Japan that would result in adopting Japanese studies in it.
Japan, as a leading part, has to establish a platform of Japanese studies and bring it up to be shared in Asia. A lot of materials necessary for Japanese studies are surely gathering in Japan. A base for Japanese studies which aims not only at ‘Japanese Culture’ but for merging humanities and social science will be necessary. Though it is necessary to cooperate and tie up in various fields, it will be important to start from utilizing existing results of researches.
We have to aim at owning information jointly. A study by “Japan Center for Asian Historical Records” is contributing to Japanese studies in the world. Not only historical records but also outcomes of Japanese studies which have been accumulated until now would be necessary to be translated into multi-lingual versions and be distributed in various ways.
Building of a network for Japanese studies in Asia. There are many organizations for Japanese studies in Asia. But there are no systems which provide international cooperation among them. To provide such networks and bases for joint researches, Japan has to exert effort to play the role as focal point and provide leadership for it.
（Professor, Graduate School of Social Science, Waseda University）
*This essay was prepared for the SGRA Forum #49 “Searching for New Paradigm of Japanese Studies” held on July 18.
Translated by Kazuo Kawamura
English checked by Mac Maquito
SGRA Kawaraban 466 in Japanese (original)
SGRA Work-shop No.4 was held in Tateshina, Nagano Prefecture, for three days starting from July 3. I participated in this trip feeling uneasiness whether it is just a trip to Tateshina or a so-called “Work-shop” (which has a very serious meaning). This is my report of my personal impression on this “work-shop”.
July 3 (Fri.)
It rained heavily since this morning. We were supposed to leave Shinjuku at 9:00am, but due to heavy rain and unexpected circumstances, we left Shinjuku one hour later. Luckily, there was no traffic jam on the way, and it stopped raining by the time we arrived at Suwa.
We had lunch at a restaurant looking at the lake of Suwa, in “Garasu-no-Sato” (town of Suwa Glasses), It seems a standard practice that we visit the museum and shops of Garasu-no-Sato after lunch. I was impressed by a lacquered box with gold foil work which was expressed in glass. It is exactly the same with hexagonal lacquered box, but actually it was foiled by gold on the surface of the glass. I could not understand why it was made of glass. (There was a cabbage also which was made of glass!)
Anyway, it was so beautiful.
Next destination was the Suwa Grand Shrine. It was raining on and off and the old shrine seems to me very mysterious being enveloped in a fog and rain. I tried to pass through a thatched circle which is a Shinto purification ceremony of to ensure a peaceful summer. I could not pray for anything since my attention was on how to pass through the circle. I should have prayed for everybody who are in the same class of the Raccoon as me to complete their doctoral thesis.
We arrived a little late at our final destination “Certo (Italian) no Mori (Forest)” in Tateshina Heights. We had an ice-breaking time after dinner. We discussed in small group that “my strong point is ～" or "my weak point is～”which are seldom discussed even among close friends. At first, I did not understand that such talking is good for ice-braking, but our discussion got really lively. I am also interested in watching some people around me discussing seriously and positively or staying absent minded or feeling easy. At the get-together meeting after this, enjoyable conversation, even listening only, continued.
July 4 (Sat.)
On the second day, a real workshop started. In the morning, we had talk shows by Dr. Liu Jie and Dr. Jun-ichi Chaya. Starting from a definition of the concept of ‘intellect’ and ‘space’, we could hear from both doctors their thinking in depth, for example, the relations between intellect and politics. Both speakers pointed out clearly that, between intellect and political power, there are delicate and tense relations. Dr. Chaya referred to American think tanks and political policies. Dr. Liu referred to Japanese studies (or scholars) in China.
Tateshina Workshop, as being called Tateshina Trip, was planned originally for scholarship students, who are tired from preparation of their doctoral thesis, to give them a refreshing time. It is a consideration of AISF and has a meaning of enjoying with ease. But, it is serious activity and a theme this time with heavy meaning. Due to this, everybody seems to be serious and earnestly accepted the theme.. At the questions and answers part after the lectures, we had vigorous discussions from various aspects and viewpoints. For example, possibilities of East Asian community in an “intellectual space”, relations between ‘intellect’ and ‘power’, establishment of relations of ‘specialty’ and ‘intellect’, connection of academic ‘intellect’ and regional ‘intellect’ etc.
I am living in such a very narrow field as Japanese history, especially modern and present history, but it was certainly an exciting and enjoyable time for me in itself. On the other hand, pressure for sectional meeting of the workshop and presentation of the next day increased. But, it was utterly groundless. I could enjoy light-heartedly a sectional meeting, as per original plan, which started in the afternoon. At the five sectional meetings, each team had a time for freely discussing their topic, while enjoying fully the nature of Tateshina about color and shape which can image ‘intellectual space” like a treasure hunting, and finding themes necessary for, or prohibited in intellectual space.
After this sectional meeting, each team began to work on their presentation next day on the basis of today’s discussion. We, in our team, decided to combine various images which symbolize ‘intellectual space’. We started our work at first, not knowing what shape our result would be. But, our work took shape gradually by finding out proper image giving our idea little by little. As a result of our good team work, we could finish our preparation work for the presentation next day before dinner. We could forget about our presentation for the time being and enjoyed our dinner, after which we continued our meeting, though it started rain again outside.
July 5 (Sun)
This is the third and the last day of the workshop. The time has come for the presentations. Each team is getting ready for the presentations. Every presentation had their individualities and they were interesting in contents and style. Our ‘collage’ expressed a shape of human beings based on an order of the universe. Other teams expressed their works in various ways. One expressed intellectual space and its birth, using egg shaped lighting effects; another expressed intellectual space, like baking a chocolate cake as shown in cooking programs on TV; and some seriously explained connections and diffusions of intellectual space using paper handicrafts. The last team expressed links among people in intellectual space letting all the participants hold each other’s hands which demonstration was calculated accurately up to the last minute. I thought the last presentation was the most suitable one for the theme of the workshop. I thank all the organizers of the workshop for not letting only new scholarship students but also OB/OG students, staff members concerned and lecturers participate through discussions, as well as in conducting the presentations. This participation was rendered enthusiastically.
There was an award ceremony which satisfied everybody . We left for Tokyo by bus after lunch. I think everybody had spent valuable time enjoying a nature (we could see deer twice); and becoming more intimate with each other.
(Photos of Tateshina Workshop)
（Doctoral Course (History), Waseda University）
Translated by Kazuo Kawamura
English checked by Mac Maquito
SGRA NEWS on July 30 in Japanese (original)
The 48th SGRA Forum (the 14th Japan-Korea Asia Future Forum) was held at the National Olympics Memorial Youth Center in Yoyogi, Tokyo on February 7. This forum was co-sponsored by ‘SGRA Research Association for Asia Initiative’ and ‘Japan-Korea Asia Future Forum’. I like to report the status quo and the problem of the dynamism of rapid economic growth in Asia from a viewpoint of building of logistic systems.
The writer reported about dreams for the future of Asia and the present under the title “Asian Highway Network and Regional Integration” – its status quo and problems – “.
Ten years ago, I, as a member of National Institute for Research Advancement (NIRA), a Japanese national think tank which has been participating in research and policy recommendation about the “North-East Asian Grand Design” which is a joint project among NIRA, Korea Research Institute for Human Settlement (KRIHS), and National Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). KRIHS and NDRC are think tanks of Korea and China. I have been studying for a few years now about the future, the present and the problems of the integrated logistics in North-East Asia, especially the Asia-Highway Network, Japan-Korea Undersea Tunnel Plan and “North-East Asian Logistic Network Plan”.
“Asian Highway Network” which aggregates Asia into one has been proposed and promoted by the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). Thirty-two countries from Asia and Europe have already signed the participation agreement among these countries as of the year 2004. Starting from Nihon-bashi, Tokyo (AH1) at the east end to Istanbul at the west end, Asian countries will cooperate and together develop and realize their dreams of peace and prosperity. Of the total length of 141,714 km, 26,699 km in China were designated to the “Asian Highway Network.” The traffic network is planned to expand through the continental region of China, to Southeast Asia, West Asia, Central Asia, North Asia and Russia.
An important idea which provides a strong impact for materialization of the Asian Highway Network was proposed by China’s General Secretary, Xi Jinping . It is called “One Belt, One Road” (一帯一路). China would utilize the “One Belt, One Road” idea as a new axis for the growth of its present economy, so-called “New Normal” (新常態), developing together with the Asian countries as a new developing “Belt”.
In China, they call the present situation which shows a slowdown of its economy since the spring of 2014 as “New Normal” and the Xi leadership calls for the realization and acceptance of the actual situation of the Chinese economy. Based on such situation, the leadership announced economic strategies and reforms. In the economic and diplomatic relations with other countries, they announced “New Asian Grand Design” (newly coined words by the writer) by the “One Belt, One Road” slogan and are putting it into practice. This is a new economic and diplomatic strategy of the Xi Jinping Administration. If this plan will progress as planned, the power composition of Asia would change significantly.
The phrase “New Normal” was first proposed to show a new direction of the Chinese economy for a soft landing after a slowdown. But, as long as I have watched the economic and political diplomacy during the latter half of 2014, “New Normal” has been used as new diplomatic strategy of international relations which exceeded the original meaning of just new normal economic condition. Together with “New Normal”, General Secretary Xi Jinping proposed “One Belt, One Road” when he visited countries in Central Asia and South Asia where he appealed for the realization of these ideas..
“One Belt, One Road” is considered as a strategic turning point in the new Asian order from the strategy of “Look East” to “Look West”. In other words, relations with the advanced countries like Japan and Korea and their strategic value, which China has regarded as important until now, have lowered in importance. And India, Southeast Asia and Central Asia, instead, will be targets of strategic development by China. India and China are now the two “Elephant and Dragon” in Asia in the sense not only of economic development but also politically and diplomatically. They think “Elephant and Dragon” will be the center of the future world.
I think such Chinese changes in diplomatic policy and the strategies for the world and Asia would cause negative impact in international relations and economic cooperation in North-East Asia. This is a big change for me – a “North-East Asian” - in the sense that it casts a shadow over my “Dreams and Hopes”.
Mr. Takao Kubo, a scholar of international relations, pointed out in his mail magazine (“Orta” No.133 dated January 20, 2015) “A sign of reversal of North and South / East and West which progresses simultaneously – thereby accelerating the diastrophism of the world –“, signifying that “American hegemony is declining, the reverse of the North and the South (Advanced countries vs. Developing countries) and the reverse of the East and the West (Asia vs. America and Europe) in the world politics are developing.”
(to be continued)
(Li Gangzhe / Professor, Hokuriku University)
Translated by Kazuo Kawamura
English checked by Mac Maquito
SGRA Kawaraban 451 in Japanese (original)