|shinden-zukuri teien 寝殿造庭園
|KEY WORD : architecture / gardens
|Lit. shinden style garden. The quintessential Heian period garden that was built in the central courtyard of aristocratic residences (see *shinden-zukuri 寝殿造). Modeled on Chinese architecture of the Tang dynasty, the complex centers on the south-facing main hall or shinden which is flanked by subsidiary buildings that are attached by long corridors. A pond and island garden called *rinsen 林泉 or *enchi 園池 fills the space withing the U-shaped courtyard created by the architecture. Typical shinden style garden ponds are fed by an artificial stream *yarimizu 遣水 from the northeast of the compound. This contains several islands nakajima 中島 reached by a carved bridge *soribashi 反橋, on the north side and a flat bridge *hirabashi 平橋 on the south side. To the west of the pond is a fishing pavilion tsuridono 釣殿, while on the south side is a spring pavilion izumidono 泉殿, both attached to the main structure by covered passageways watadono 渡殿. The pond, if large enough, would be navigated in dragon boats. The design of the areas of the pond was often meant to evoke famous aquatic scenery from China or Japan. The shinden style garden, originally the location of ceremonies, developed into a pleasure garden to be enjoyed on foot, by boat, or viewed from the pavilions. Although no such gardens survive from the Heian period, the 11c *SAKUTEIKI 作庭記 (Treatise on Garden Making) describes the function and design of the gardens. Written descriptions also appear in Heian literature such as GENJI MONOGATARI 源氏物語 (The Tale of Genji), while visual depictions of shinden gardens may be found in Heian and Kamakura period paintings as the Nenjuu Gyouji emaki 年中行事絵巻 (Picture scroll of annual events ; Tokyo National Museum). Shinden style gardens were often converted to Pure Land garden *joudo teien 浄土庭園 after the death of their owner. The best-known examples are the gardens, at Byoudouin *Hououdou 平等院鳳凰堂 in Kyoto and at Moutsuuji 毛越寺 in Iwate prefecture. Other examples, such as those at Tenryuuji 天竜寺 and Rokuonji 鹿苑寺 in Kyoto, were altered to accommodate the taste and function of new patrons in the Muromachi period.
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