Higashiyama bunka 東山文化
KEY WORD : art history / general terms
Lit. east mountain culture. The culture of the middle Muromachi period *Muromachi jidai 室町時代, specifically that of the eighth shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa 足利義政 (1436-90), from the beginning of his rule until his death (1443-90). It is named after the area east of Kyoto, Higashiyama 東山 where in 1483 Yoshimasa built the Silver Pavilion, Ginkakuji 銀閣寺 (Jishouji 慈照寺) for his retirement. The interiors of buildings were innovative, displaying many features such as *chigaidana 違い棚 (staggered display shelves) and tsukeshoin 付書院 (a shallow desk) that would be incorporated into the *shoin 書院 style of architecture in the succeeding Momoyama period *Momoyama jidai 桃山時代. A great many arts are associated with Higashiyama bunka, particularly the advancement of ink painting *suibokuga 水墨画 under the master Sesshuu Touyou 雪舟等楊 (1420-1506) and the founding of the Kanou school of painting *Kanouha 狩野派. This family of painters under the leadership of Kanou Masanobu 狩野正信 (1434 - 1530) were descended from a low ranking samurai 侍 family from the area around modern Shizuoka preferture. Masanobu was appointed official shogunal painter in 1481. Toward the end of the 15c under Murata Jukou 村田珠光 (1423 - 1502), the act of tea drinking was formalized into a ritual *chanoyu 茶湯. Tea rooms such as the Doujinsai 同仁斎 in the *Tougudou 東求堂 at Yoshimasa's Ginkakuji villa were designed to express the aesthetic concepts of individual tea masters. Thick green tea was served, and the objects used in the ceremony were carefully chosen to suggest age and understated elegance.

*Kitayama bunka 北山文化, *Sengoku jidai 戦国時代, *Amiha 阿弥派

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