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Dr. Toru Nakanishi Docs

Organic Farming as an Art of Not Being Governed
Some Lessons from the Philippines and Japan

Toru Nakanishi, D. Econ.
[email protected]
International Relations
Department of Social and International Studies
The University of Tokyo

The purpose of this presentation is to clarify the proposition that “the weak” can enjoy freedom, autonomous self-governance and environmental conservation by ingeniously utilizing a small-scale but independent and imperfect closed economy, especially in the islands societies. In the case studies, we explore strategic behaviors in organic farming in the Philippines and Japan. Here, we will pay attentions to the fact that organic farming methods follow the principle of small quantity but large variety, referring the framework of “escape society” in "Zo-mia" discussed by James C. Scott (2009).

Poverty alleviation becomes the highest target for the donors today, since Millennium Goals were declared. Indeed, the standard of the livings for the poor in the Philippines has improved according to the official data. The fact that absolute poverty has dramatically reduced shows that the poverty issue is reaching a new stage where poverty has only relative meanings especially in the Southeast Asia setting. It is often said, however, that globalization may not offer favorable opportunities for “the weak” in the developing countries. It may invite an irreversible crisis to them in the future.

During the Cold War (1945-89), the interests for both Blocs were to gain the hegemony by the increase of the number of the developing countries which belong to their own Bloc. It means that the assistances to “the state” (the apothanasia of dictatorship and the vested interest groups) has priority over those to “the weak” (poverty reduction). Such situations could have invited the deterioration of the standard of the living for “the weak” through the naïve exploitation by multi-national corporations. We can find here the reason why the so-called dependency theory was in full flourish during the same period.

After the end of the Cold War, however, the political conflicts between two Blocs transformed to the market competition among the global corporations. Their interest on the developing countries has shifted from “the state” as a political tool to “the weak” as a market. It is important to note that the assistance to “the weak” (CSR: Corporate Social Responsibility) to some extent is an important strategy for the global corporation, which can contribute to the increase of profits utilizing market discrimination in the technical terms in Economics. The increase of the income of “the weak” can contribute to market cultivation as advertising their products on “the weak” can do. Such effects may be cumulative because the increase of the income of “the weak” is a kind of public goods among the global corporation. Since “the weak” are “markets” for the global corporation, they cannot be “the poor.” Therefore, it can be said that poverty reduction is a cunningly sophisticated strategy which ingeniously tames “the weak” to make profit from them by guaranteeing the improvement of the standard of living for “the weak” to some extent.

Nowadays, there are no development economists who deny the assistance to the developing countries. The hot issue in development economics is, however, to design the efficient implementation of the assistance using the analytical tools in the experimental economics rather than the content of the assistance itself. These situations imply the possibilities that the developing countries confront the new crisis or the governance by the global corporation which they have never experienced. This is a crisis because the invisible third parties intervene the governance of the societies in the developing countries.

This crisis may be especially profound in the rural areas. The simplification by conventional agriculture based on F1 (first filial generation) seeds or GM (genetically modified) seeds can erode the bio-diversification the organic agriculture based on indigenous seeds or heirloom varieties have conserved. My concern is the fact that there have been so many people who have local knowledge on the arts of not being governed by “the state” or the global corporations. They have not raise the standard of revolt to “the state” or the global corporations but have kept the subtle relationships with them. They do not have created the autarky in their locality, but have fostered and developed the local knowledge to “escape” from the direct or indirect exploitation by “the state” or the global corporations while often utilizing rich resources in the counter-parts.

The same logic in such ingenious strategies can be found in the way of life for “the hill people” in "Zomia." In the presentation, in the global system, the way of life for “the weak” based on the imperfect closed society can be one of the important counter strategies for them based on some illustrations in organic farming in the Philippines and Japan.


Toru Nakanishi

Birth Date: August 1, 1958

1982 Graduated from Faculty of Economics, Sophia University
1989 Graduated from Graduate School of Economics, University of Tokyo

Work Experiences
1989 Research Associate, International University of Japan
1991 Associate Professor, Faculty of Economics, Hokkaido University
1993 Associate Professor, Faculty of Economics, University of Tokyo
2001 Profesor, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo

Some Works
“The Labour Market in the Urban Informal Sector: The Case of the Philippines”,The Developing Economies, Vol.28, No.3,Institute of Developing Economies, 1990.
Economics of Slum, University of Tokyo Press, 1991 (in Japanese)
“Comparative Study on Informal Labor Markets in Urbanization Process,” Developing Economies, vol.34, no.4., 1996.
Metro Manila: In Search of a Sustainable Future, with Tatsuo Omachi and Emerlinda R. Ramon, University of the Philippine Press, 2002.
“Hidden Community Development among the Urban Poor: Informal Settlers in Metro Manila,” Policy and Society, vol. 25 no.4., 2006.
"Organic Agriculture: Alternative Strategy for Sustainable Development," International and Social Studies, University of Tokyo, vol.61., pp.99-121, 2012. (in Japanese)


Mr. Aladino C. Moraca and Mr. Ramon C. Uy Docs

Import-Substitution in Manufacturing for Sustainable Agriculture (DIRI Approach)
by Aladino C. Moraca (Executive Director, Ecological and Agricultural Development Foundation), Ramon C. Uy (President, RU Foundry)


The concept of import substitution through fabrication and manufacturing of replacement parts for sugar mills was introduced by Mr. Ramon C. Uy, Sr. in 1970s to 1980s. He is the owner of RU Foundry and Machine Shop Corporation. The initiatives was strengthened when the company started to manufacture machineries and equipment in 1997 to date to support sustainable agriculture and waste management programs and projects.

Import substitution came into the consciousness of Mr. Uy as a means to promote local action to create wealth and push for decentralize development.

Filipinos has a preference of buying externally produced products rather than patronizing the use of locally manufactured inputs. Machineries and equipment needs of individuals or businesses can be produced and manufactured by local suppliers. Inconvenience or lack of information perhaps the reasons why machineries and agricultural inputs in our country are often purchased from the outside.

Approaches of import substitution engaged by RU Foundry and Machine Shop Corporation in partnership with Ecological and Agricultural Development Foundation, Inc. (EcoAgri) is to produce goods and services such as: safe and healthy food, organic fertilizer and water by adopting appropriate and renewable energy technologies. Products and machineries developed and manufactured are: shredder machine for biodegradable and non-biodegradable (waste management and composting facilities), hydraulic ram pump for water supply (drinking and irrigation), essential oil extractor, windmill for pumping water, post harvest support facilities and other appropriate and renewable energy technologies.

Production and manufacturing of heavy duty, easy to maintain and good quality machineries enhanced the flow of capital and resources in our assisted communities. The efforts played a critical role in achieving concrete results in spreading best farming practices anchored on the principles of sustainable agriculture.

Efforts of RU Foundry and Machine Shop Corporation and Ecological and Agricultural Development Foundation, Inc. (EcoAgri) adopting the DIRI Model displayed tangible outputs in addressing poverty issues and concerns. Concrete results are: creation of wealth and job opportunities, sustainable livelihood activities in the upland communities, and availability of locally manufactured machineries and equipment which is durable, easy to maintain and environment friendly.

Substituting demand for externally produced inputs with locally produced inputs is still our challenge and part of our advocacy to showcase promising approaches.


Block 9, Lot 10, NGO Village, Brgy. Handumanan
Bacolod City, Negros Occidental, Philippines
Res. Tel. No. 34 707 4316
Office Tel. Nos. 444-1337/444-3286
Mobile: 09193442115


Born: June 10, 1969, Barangay Tagukon, Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental, Philippines;
Age 44; Height 5’7 ; Weight 172 lbs.; Filipino; Male;
Married; Roman Catholic

International Exposure

• One of the Presenters on best practices on Renewable Energy Technologies/ Appropriate Technology during the World Water Forum 4 (WWF4) held in Mexico City on March 17-21, 2006. The activity was attended by at least 18,000 delegates all over the world.

• One of the Resource Speakers during the NGO’s, Private Sector and Farmers Conference held in Bali, Indonesia on May 09-11, 2006. Topic discussed: Appropriate Technologies Bolster Rural Economy

• Attended the International Expo (Exhibit of Essential Oil Products) held in Hongkong Convention Center last November 17-21, 2006. Introduction and presentation of Lemon Grass Oil Product to the international market was the main objective in participating the activity.

• One of the Presenters during the Innovations Based of Pyramid (IBOP) Conference held in Jakarta, Indonesia on June 10 to 12, 2010. Topic discussed: Turning Natural Wastes into Organic Fertilizer, Cheap and Affordable Fuel for Cooking.

Research Activities

• Inventory of Flora and Fauna in Ilog-Hilabangan Watershed Forest Reserve (2004). Assigned as Team Leader in the conduct of the study. One of the highlights of the study was the identification of sustainable livelihood options for implementation by the LGUs and other stakeholders in the area. The approach was to encourage communities participation and involvement in the protection and conservation of the watershed forest reserve.

• Development and improvement of the Eco-Pump/s as one of the renewable energy technologies popularize by Eco-Agri Development Foundation. Working model has been completed and ready for implementation.

• Improvement of biogas system. EcoAgri Development Foundation, Inc. successfully improved the design of the biogas model which is practical and appropriate for implementation in the rural areas.

• Development and improvement of an Essential Oil Distiller. Successfully improved the design of the Essential Oil Distiller. Installation of the system in one of the upland communities in Negros Occidental is an on-going research project of the EcoAgri Development Foundation, Inc. It is expected that the research project will create sustainable livelihood option of the upland farmers through the extraction of Lemon Grass Oil.

• Research and development activities on best practices on vermiculture/vermicomposting and organic foliar fertilizer production.


Executive Director
Ecological and Agricultural Development Foundation, Inc. (EcoAgri)
August 11, 2008 – to date

• Instrumental in the process of transforming at least 6,000 small farmers in the Province of Negros Occidental and in other provinces in the Philippines into a farmer entrepreneur through the promotion and implementation of renewable energy technologies and provision of additional revolving capital and support facilities wherein practices adopted is anchored on the principle and practices of Sustainable Agriculture/Organic Farming.
• Research and development activities lead to the development of an efficient and durable model of Hydraulic Ram Pump, Elephant Pump, Rope Pump, Biogas, Essential Oil Extractor, Rotary Weeder, Windmill for Water Pumping and Mechanical Presser for Eco-Charcoal production.

Technical Consultant
United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)
April 01, 2013 – to date

Technical Consultant
RU Foundry and Machine Shop Corporation
August 11, 2008 – to date

Executive Director
Alternative Indigenous Development Foundation, Inc. (AIDFI)
April 04, 2004 - August 10, 2008

• Instrumental in the process of accessing funds and establishing partnership with the local, national and international institutions which lead to the implementation of various renewable energy development programs and projects of the Foundation.
• Ensures the implementation of programs and projects of the Foundation.
• Developed strategies and approaches to enhance implementation of the projects at the community level and to enhance efforts in mobilizing resources, networking and linkaging activities.
• Facilitates preparation of yearly operational plan, financial plan and human resource management plan for approval by the BOD.
• Involved in the research and development activities on renewable energy technologies.

Professor (Part-Time)
Graduate School of La Carlota City College, Negros Occidental
October, 2001 to March, 2003

Team Member
Multi-Sectoral Alliance for Development – Negros (MUAD-Negros)
March 16, 2001 to May 31, 2001

• Prepare project proposals and project feasibility studies related to potential community livelihood projects implemented in the Protected Area of Mount Kanla-on National Park.

Program Officer
Negros Economic Development Foundation, Inc.
August 01, 1998 - to date

• Facilitate Strategic Planning Sessions.
• Coordinate closely with the Finance Division on financial matters relative to the operations of various Income Generating Projects of the Foundation.
• Report directly to the Executive Director related to income generating projects and resource mobilization activities of the Foundation.
• Manages income generating projects.
• Ensure that monthly target are accomplished with proper use of manpower and resources.
• Regularly conduct monitoring and evaluation.
• Conduct seminars and training/s
• Facilitate preparation of Project Concepts and Project Proposals related to bio-diversity and climate change, enterprise development, health, renewable energy technologies, capability building, sustainable agriculture and agroforestry and genetic resources conservation of indigenous varieties of rice and vegetables for funding to various agencies/institutions. Nine (9) project concepts and proposals prepared were approved by various funding partners or funding agencies.

Local Training Officer
Negros Economic Development Foundation, Inc.
January 01, 1996 to July 31, 1998

• Conduct project assessment and evaluation of the Integrated Capability Building and Linkage Project of the Foundation.
• Evaluates community livelihood projects proposed by the community organizations.
• Facilitate and assist the officers of the community organizations in the conduct of assessment, planning and replanning.
• Facilitate in the conduct of seminars and training.
• Facilitate in the preparation of Training Proposals, Project Proposals, Training Design, Training Modules, Budget Plan, Accomplishment and Terminal Report.

Project Officer
Negros Economic Development Foundation, Inc.
April 06, 1992 to December 31, 1995

• Responsible in implementing the Special Development Project and Sectoral Integrated Resource Access and Distribution Program of Negros Economic Development Foundation, Inc.
• Perform community organizing and development works.
• Conduct assessment, monitoring and evaluation.
• Audit community-based projects.
• Provide technical and community organizing assistance and do net- working with the Local Government Units, Line Agencies and other Non-Government Organizations and Peoples Organization’s.
• Ensures that planned activities properly implemented.

Tuburan Technology and Research Center (TTRC)
June 01, 1990 to March 31, 1992

• Responsible in implementing the Research Program of Tuburan Technology and Research Center on sustainable agriculture and appropriate technology.
• Coordinate with the Finance, Extension and Training Program in conducting and undertaking the research studies.
• Formulate operational budget of the Research Program.
• Provide technical assistance with the personnel in-charge in the demonstration farm.
• Facilitates in the preparation of project feasibility studies, project proposals and training modules.
• Ensures that planned activities properly implemented.


Licensed Agriculturist with PRC Registration No. 0012606

Graduate of Master in Business Administration (MBA)
University of Negros Occidental – Recoletos (UNO-R)
Bacolod City, Negros Occidental
School Year 1998-1999

Bachelor of Science in Agriculture (BSA) major in Agri-Business
Negros Occidental Agricultural College (NOAC)
Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental
(1986 –1990)

Secondary Education
Negros Occidental Agricultural College (NOAC)
Kabankalan City, Negros Occidental

Primary and Elementary Education
Brgy. Tagukon, Kabankalan, City Negros Occidental

Presentation Slides
Thank you for not plagiarizing. Support us by properly citing the title, author, and seminar (SGRA 16th Sustainable Shared Growth Seminar, "The Urban-Rural Gap and Sustainable Shared Growth", August 23, 2013, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines)

Dr. Max Maquito, Mr. Aladino, Mr. Uy, and Dr. Medina Docs

Downstream Integrated Radicular Import-Substitution (DIRI): A Model for Sustainable Agriculture from Negros

By Ferdinand C. Maquito, Aladino C. Moraca, Ramon C. Uy, Jose R. Medina*

We shall present the initial results of a survey research of over a hundred small-scale Negrese farmers involved in a social network that we have referred to as the Downstream Integrated Radicular Import-Substitution (DIRI) model. In addition to articulating the DIRI model, the survey aims to analyze the diffusion and effectiveness of technological innovations introduced through the DIRI network and aimed at promoting sustainable agriculture. The radicle of this particular DIRI model is formed from the combination of a corporate entity, RU Foundry and, a civil society organization, EcoAgri Foundation. The technological innovations studied include ram pump, shredder, distiller, vermi-composting, biogas, non-GMO seeds, and marketing of organic produce.

Sustainable agriculture provides a good mechanism for achieving efficiency, equity, and environmental-friendliness. Sustainable agricultural farms are able to achieve yields that could compete with conventional practices, to reduce their use of costly external inputs, and to maintain the health of the ecological environment of the farm. Despite these benefits, however, conventional farming continues to be the prevalent form of farming in the Philippines and the world. This study hopes to shed light on this paradox.

*Assisted by Dante Escarmoso


Dr. Ferdinand C. Maquito (nickname: Max)
Philippine Chief Representative, Sekiguchi Global Research Association (SGRA)
Through SGRA, he pursues his research and advocacy for sustainable shared growth in the Philippines through manufacturing and the empowerment of poor rural communities
Ph.D. in Economics from the University of Tokyo (1996)
M.S. in Industrial Economics, Center for Research and Communication (1986)
B.S. Mechanical Engineering from the University of the Philippines (1982)
On-going Research Projects
1. Urban and Rural Poor Communities with Prof. Toru Nakanishi, University of Tokyo
2. IT Industry and Development with Prof. Hitoshi Hirakawa, Kokushikan University (Prof. Emeritus, Nagoya University)
3. International Labor Migration with Prof. Tran Van Tho, Waseda University
Some recent publications/presentations
1. “Towards a Strategy for Manufactured Exports to Japan” Philippine-Japan Economic Partnership Agreement: Strengthening the Foundation for Regional Cooperation and Economic Integration Vol. 2 Philippine Institute of Development Studies 2013 (forthcoming)
2. “The Dynamics of Social Networks in Philippine Poor Communities—From Giant Leaps to Small Steps” Philippine Journal of Labor and Industrial Relations 2012 (forthcoming) – paper submitted to the SGRA First Asia Future Conference in March 2013, where it was selected as one of the Best Papers
3. “A Comparative Economic Analysis of Japanese-Style Labor Contracts from a Shared Growth Perspective” Philippine Journal of Labor and Industrial Relations Vol. 31, Nos. 1&2, 2011(2nd author: Hitoshi Hirakawa), reprinted in The Second Book on Sustainable Employment Relations” J.V. Sibal, R. A. Asuncion, et.al. (eds.), Manila: Philippine Industrial Relations Society, Inc. 2012
4. “Mega Toushi Manira ni Okeru Kankyouteki ni Jisoku Kanou na Koutsu he no Chouzen: EDSA wo Chuushin ni” (Challenging Environmentally Sustainable Transportation in Mega City Manila: Focus on EDSA” , Proceedings of the 38th SGRA Forum in Tateshina, Japan (held July 3, 2010) SGRA Report No. 55, December 15, 2010
5. “KyouyuuGata Seichou Toshiteno Higashi Ajia Tougou” (An East Asian Integration as Shared Growth), Chapter 21 (co-authored with Hitoshi Hirakawa) in “Higashi Ajia no Shin Sangyou Shuseki: Chiiki Hatten to Kyouryoku/Kyousei” (New Industrial Agglomeration of East Asia: Regional Development in Copperation and Symbiosis), Hitoshi Hirakawa, Makoto Tawada, Ryuhei Okumura, Nobuyoshi Yamori, Jong-He Seo (eds.), Tokyo: Gakujutsu Shuppankai, November 2010
6. “East Asian Integration and Shared Growth: Some Preliminary Results of a Center for Buoyancy Approach” (co-authored with Hitoshi Hirakawa) in Proceedings of “International Conference: Industrial Agglomeration, Regional Integration and Durable Growth in East Asia” sponsored by the Faculty of Banking and Finance, and the Faculty of International Economics of the Foreign Trade University (Hanoi, Vietnam) and the Graduate School of Economics and the Economic Research Center of Nagoya University, October 28 – 29, 2010, Hanoi, Vietnam, pp. 250-267
7. “Rediscovering Japan’s Leadership in “Shared Growth” Management”, Rikkyo Business Review Number 3, July 2010, pp. 20-38 (co-authored with Henrietta Carbonel)
8. “A Roadmap for Shared Growth through the Philippine Auto Industry”, August 1, 2008, mimeo, 132 pages (submitted to a major Japanese automotive firm and the Philippine Department of Trade and Industry)

Presentation Slides
Thank you for not plagiarizing. Support us by properly citing the title, author, and seminar (SGRA 16th Sustainable Shared Growth Seminar, "The Urban-Rural Gap and Sustainable Shared Growth", August 23, 2013, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines)

Recarti Q. Galsim, Ramonsito S. Adriano , Bonifacio R.Tuiza, Reynaldo E. Prado and Paul Bayungan Docs

Sustaining Community Initiatives for Improving Water Supply and Sanitation by
Recarti Q. Galsim*, Ramonsito S. Adriano*, Bonifacio R.Tuiza*, Reynaldo E. Prado* and Paul Bayungan**
(*Sitio Silangan Water and Sanitation Association, **Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation-ITN Foundation)


The paper reports on sustainability trends resulting from a community-based project in Sitio Silangan, Barangay Canlubang, Calamba, Laguna where PCWS--with support from Baxter Healthcare Philippines--trained four people in early 2013 to build, operate, repair and maintain pilot demonstration units of biogas digester septic tank, rainwater harvesting tank, iron removal filter and biosand filter. The four trainees replicated the low-cost technologies in their community, such that after three months, there were already 3 biogas digester septic tanks, 2 rainwater harvesting tanks, 2 iron removal filters and 40 biosand filters. These low-cost technologies are now being used by community members who have the least financial resources; are most impacted by water scarcity and lack of access to potable water; and lack safe and adequate sanitation facilities. Using these technologies, more and more community residents are now meeting their daily needs for potable and non-potable water, a substantial improvement from just three months ago.

The paper also reports on the Sitio Silangan water and sanitation association (WSA), which was formed by the community to sustain initiatives that have been started. WSA members include all the beneficiaries of the low-cost water and sanitation technologies. The WSA‘s Action Plan includes raising awareness to the rest of the community residents about low-cost water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) technologies for human health, community empowerment and environmental protection. Beneficiaries of the low-cost technologies are raising awareness and sharing knowledge about WASH technologies to the poorest of the poor in their community. Biogas digesters, which serve as sanitation advocacy tools, are being promoted as a means for managing waste and having a steady supply of biofuel for cooking. Rainwater harvesting is being promoted as an alternative water source and a solution to the groundwater depletion, which is already happening in Canlubang and adjacent areas. Beneficiary households monitor the efficiency and performance of the low-cost technologies. In coordination with PCWS, the WSA does the water quality testing on each biosand filter on a regular basis. Learning sessions through innovations and up-scaling of the low-cost technologies are on-going. The WSA has started to receive visitors from other communities and engage in focus group discussions with them regarding improved access to water supply and sanitation. The Sitio Silangan WSA is bound to broaden its knowledge about sanitation systems, and learn more about designing, building and operating a low-cost wastewater treatment for households and communities.


PAUL L. BAYUNGAN is a Project Officer at the Philippine Center for Water and Sanitation - ITN Foundation (PCWS-ITNF). He used to work with the US Peace Corps as Technical Trainer and Language and Culture Facilitator. Paul also worked as Community Extension Officer at the World Vision Philippines; Community Organizer at the Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement; and Community Organizer at the National Anti-Poverty Commission. He was previously employed as Rural Sanitary Inspector at the Banaue Municipal Local Government and later as Chief of Staff of the Governor’ s Office at the Ifugao Provincial Local Government. Paul also worked as Chief Administrative Support Staff at the Office of the Regional Governor of the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao.

Paul has training on environmental planning; participatory project development and management; language, technical and cultural integration and communication; primary health care, first aid and minor surgery; environmental awareness and education. He also has skills in inter-personal communication; counseling techniques; assessment process; cross-cultural sessions on American-Filipino diversity; and different teaching methodologies and approaches.

Prof. Amparo H. Fabe Docs

The Sustainable Consumption Lifestyle: The Filipino Mall Experience

This paper tackles discuss the malling phenomenon in the Philippines and how it has transformed the consumption culture of a nation. It is important to define the culture of consumption by understanding consumer spaces. As the elements of consumption are internalized by societies, they become cultural signifiers. Consumption in the twenty-first century forms part of identity politics and fills a multitude of niches. Prior to the establishment of the SM Malls nationwide, Filipinos had to travel to a multitude of locations to buy goods and services. Trips to three different shopping districts to buy groceries, clothes and shoes were not uncommon. A simple series of shopping transaction could take several days as one had to visit a number of small, distant shops. In the Philippines, malls now allow consumers to engage in all types of transactions in one location, and have transformed shopping into a one-time affair with less physical effort. Malls have also provided Filipinos with a new recreational geography, encouraged the consumption of “new” technological products such as PDAs and computers, and have made previously-inaccessible leisure facilities, such as gyms and bowling allies, part of mainstream, middle-class life. The paper concludes with the salient typologies of Filipino youth consumption amidst the rise of a consumer society and its impact on social class and gender.


Amparo Pamela H. Fabe is a UP Diliman trained economist and sociologist. She is a Consultant in Project Finance and Social Marketing. Her specific research interest is in the sociology of conflict and cultural studies. She pursued a Master’s Degree in Industrial Economics at the University of Asia and the Pacific, and finished a Bachelor of Science Degree in Economics at the UP School of Economics. She has completed graduate studies in the Dynamics of Youth and Terrorism at the Southeast Asian Regional Center for Counter-Terrorism in Malaysia. She has written over 40 academic monographs, book chapters and journal articles.

Presentation Slides
Thank you for not plagiarizing. Support us by properly citing the title, author, and seminar (SGRA 16th Sustainable Shared Growth Seminar, "The Urban-Rural Gap and Sustainable Shared Growth", August 23, 2013, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines)

List of Co-Sponsors

1. Patron Sponsor: Agricultural Training Institute, Department of Agriculture c/o Director Asterio P. Saliot, CESO III (Solicitor: Prof. Rowena Baconguis, University of the Philippines, Los Banos)
2. Patron Sponsor: Kajima Philippines, Inc. c/o COO Fusaaki Kato and CFO Yukio Saito (Solicitor: SGRA Chief Representative Junko Imanishi and Dr. Max Maquito)
3. Major Sponsor: Ma. Esperenza B. Valencia & Associates (Solicitor: Arch. Ching Valencia)
4. Major Sponsor: Daniel M. Briones Construction Ent., Inc. (Solicitor: Arch. Ching Valencia)
5. United Architects of the Philippines, Diliman Chapter (Solicitor: Arch. Steph Gilles)


Arch. Stephanie N. Gilles Docs

Evaluating Sustainability of Green Open Spaces in Shopping Malls:
The Greenbelt Park Experience
by Arch. Marie Stephanie N. Gilles, Dr. Grace C. Ramos (College of Architecture, University of the Philippines, Diliman)

Green open spaces provide a variety of functions that satisfy human needs: recreation, enhancing the quality of life, improving air quality, ground water storage, climate moderation and flood control. Any attempt to monetize these spaces is challenging since these forms will always possess intangible values that are beyond calculation. A considerable amount of studies have been done on open landscape amenities and their price effects on residential properties, but there is hardly any study available on determining amenity values of green open spaces inside shopping malls, mainly due to varying thrusts of private developers and priorities in space planning.
This paper aims to approximate the amenity values of parks inside malls and evaluate their sustainability, approaching it from the contingent property valuation angle, using hedonic price modeling. Through a case study of restaurants inside malls (interviews and mapping inventory), it will establish the correlation between restaurant distances to park amenities falling under the categories of zoning, rental rates, volume of foot traffic, food quality and park features. It is hypothesized that the retail shops or restaurants located near the parks have a higher probability of ROI (return on investment) despite higher rental fees, based on volume of foot traffic generated by this amenity. To validate this assumption, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is used as a tool in measuring these observations, using Geographically Weighted Regressions (GWR) analysis. Through statistical data software, factor analysis among the variables is performed to determine those that are significant, after which these are entered into a regression analysis to corroborate initial assumptions and hypotheses regarding the inverse proportionality between ROI and zoning/ distance and view to park, i.e. the nearer the shops are to the park, the faster the ROI.
It is the researcher’s hope that, having the parks’ economic viability and sustainability established, it will encourage urban planners and mall developers to allocate more generous portions of green open space, thereby contributing to the general welfare of its users and ultimately enhancing the sense of place and communion with nature.

Keywords: determining amenity values, green open spaces in malls

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Presentation Slides
Thank you for not plagiarizing. Support us by properly citing the title, author, and seminar (SGRA 16th Sustainable Shared Growth Seminar, "The Urban-Rural Gap and Sustainable Shared Growth", August 23, 2013, College of Engineering, University of the Philippines)


Manila Report 2013 Summer

I went home to Manila for about a week for the 14th Annual Global Conference of the Global Development Network (GDN) which was held from June 19 to 21 at the Asian Development Bank (ADB) headquarters in Manila. Despite having no paper to present, I decided to adjust my schedule (it was the middle of the summer term) to join the over 400 participants from all over the world, since GDN was taking care of my expenses including plane tickets, and 5-star hotel accommodation, and the GDN theme of "Inequality, Social Protection, and Inclusive Growth" appeared to be related to the SGRA Philippine theme of "Sustainable Shared Growth". (See this link for details of the GDN conference)

In his keynote address, President Benigno Aquino III cited the conditional cash transfer, which was the Philippine government's major program for inclusive growth. There were a number of interesting papers in the conference about this program. (For the President's speech, please see the following link:)

During the conference, as much as possible I took the opportunity to talk with the other participants in search for research and advocacy possibilities. I will be exploring some of them in the future. During the Q&As, there were active discussions, and the session chairs were very busy keeping up with the vitality of the participants, and managing the sessions so as to let as many as possible to ask questions. Due to time constraints, there were some who could not ask their questions, and I was among them. In this case, I tried to catch the presenter during the breaks, and engage them in discussions. Fortunately, I had two chances to participate in the Q&A , which I would like to report here, since I considered these important.

One was in the parallel session where the panel were all ADB researchers, and the theme was on "Operationalizing Inclusive Growth in Asia and the Pacific". Apparently, the audience tended to cluster at the back, so the session chair had to encourage the audience to move to the front so that we could see each other's faces better during the Q&A. As long as space would allow it, I normally would sit towards the front, so there was no need for me to move. But, I think it was a good encouragement from the ADB session chair, given that at an early stage of the conference, I got the impression (wrongly I hope) that the ADB people tended to avoid talking with the conference participants.

While listening to the ADB presentations, I was trying to organize my thoughts on the following: what was the difference between the concept or developmental policy/strategy called inclusive growth, which ADB was pushing, and an earlier concept or developmental policy/strategy called shared growth? I really wanted to confirm this with the ADB panel. "Shared growth" was cited in the World Bank's 1993 "East Asian Miracle" report, wherein the subject of study was the "successful Asian economies" that one of the presenters alluded to in his presentation. Based on its analysis, the report concluded that one of the factors behind the success of these countries, which included Japan, was the strategic industrial policy implemented by the government. While listening to the panel, the two growth concepts or developmental policies/strategies sounded like they covered the same areas, i.e., regional integration through trade, human capital formation, and jobs creation. However, despite the passionate presentation of one about job creation, I couldn't help but get the impression that jobs creation was sort of an after thought. I thought that this was very much evident in the presentation about the evaluation of the ADB inclusive growth program. How you ( ADB) evaluate your program clearly tells me what is important to you. Based on the evaluation presentation, inclusive growth appears to have an emphasis on social protection (= safety net, such as human capital formation and unemployment policies). If we go by this understanding, then we could think of a case such as the Philippines, where we can have more educated nurses, or more educated call center operators, but I for one would doubt very much if this would be good for the Philippines at this point. Such a development trajectory would only aggravate the early de-industrialization problem of the country. I really believe that the Philippines at this juncture should strive to develop its manufacturing sector. (I didn't mention it, but I also feel this way about the agricultural sector)

The ADB presenter who alluded to the "successful Asia", replied that the creation of the right kind of jobs is certainly important for the Philippines, and agreed that it was necessary to deepen the discussions on the early de-industrialization of the Philippines. Another presenter, who seems to be the founding father (apparently not Japanese) of inclusive growth in ADB, replied that the two growth concepts are similar words, but shared growth appears to ignore "equality of opportunity" .

I take this response as confirming my earlier understanding. Providing educational subsidies to those who cannot afford or the rescuing of those who have been laid off from their jobs are important but these do not necessarily provide a solution to the early de-industrialization mentioned earlier, making it more and more difficult for the Philippines to get out of the "middle income" trap.

One more opportunity to participate in the Q&A was in the parallel session organized by the FONDATION POUR LES ETUDES ET RECHERCHES SUR LE DEVELOPPEMENT INTERNATIONAL (Foundation for the Study and Research on International Development) or FERDI Foundation (see the following link for a write up on this session: ) The presentations were about the allocation of Official Development Assistance (ODA) under a performance-based evaluation system that considered the vulnerability to disasters by the recipient country. The designated commentator criticized the evaluation proposal saying that such a system could be too complicated for the policy makers, so that it faces the risk of reducing grant amounts. He emphasized the need for considering the political economy of ODA. In short, the comment was not to complicate things (KISS).

I also have done research on Japan's ODA from a modern economics perspective during my doctoral work at the University of Tokyo and research fellowship at Nagoya University, so in response to the commentator, I pointed out that, even if we consider political economics, ODA does not end with the appointed officials around the negotiation table but at the final beneficiaries which are the citizens of the recipient country. Consequently, the ODA evaluation system that the FERDI Foundation is developing would be highly appreciated by the citizens of the recipient country, myself included. So, I would like to laud the efforts of the foundation to develop such a system. In this sense, the proposed system could also be used as a tool for evaluating international aid agencies, so I asked the question whether this study of the performance-based allocation was also applied to other aid agencies besides the International Development Assistance of the World Bank.

In response to my comment, the designated commentator gave me a smile and conceded that I have made my point. In response to my question, the FERDI economist replied that they have applied their analysis to other international aid agencies, and basically found that they were allocated based on performance. However, they did find agencies that did not allocate this way, so it would be necessary for such agencies to review their allocation process.

On the morning of the third day of the conference, following the advice of SGRA Chief Representative Junko Imanishi, I slipped out of the conference, and made my way to the office of Kajima Philippines. My aim was to solicit the sponsorship of this company for the SGRA 16th Sustainable Shared Growth seminar to be held on August 23rd at the University of the Philippines. I was kindly received by COO Fusaaki Kato and CFO Yukio Saito. After discussing with them the seminar, they consulted each other briefly and decided to go for the largest type of sponsorship. They of course had an interest on the architecture-related presentations in the seminar, but also expressed interest in the reduction of the urban-rural gap, which is the main theme of the seminar. I intend to manage the future seminars while consulting with them.

My other efforts were to invite the conference participants to the 16th Sustainable Shared Growth seminar and to the 2nd Asia Future Conference in Bali, as well as to search for opportunities for joint research projects (especially with India and Vietnam) . It was really a fruitful three days for me, and for SGRA HQ as well, since I used my affiliation with SGRA Japan in the conference list of participants, in the Q&A sessions, and in the discussions with other participants. Of course, my face gave away the fact that I was not Japanese, although I would like to believe that I simply expressed what I have learned in Japan about her admirable thoughts regarding development.

by Max Maquito (June 29, 2013, Mejiro, Tokyo)


Arch. Michael V. Tomeldan Docs



Although Manila and Quezon City were cities that were master planned (Burnham Plan for Manila in 1904 and Frost Plan for Quezon City in 1939) in the 20th century, limited resources, lack of political will, and rapid urbanization prevented strict adherence to the plans. As more people populated the city of Manila and the adjacent cities and towns in the 1960s and 1970s, towns in nearby provinces became suburbs that provided the lands to meet the demand for housing and production.

In 1975, Manila, along with three cities and 13 municipalities (mostly from Rizal province) were consolidated to form Metropolitan Manila by virtue of Presidential Decree 940. The National Capital Region (NCR) or Metropolitan Manila has been the premier metropolis in the Philippines ever since. Today, it accounts for about 13% of the national population and 33% of the National Gross Domestic Product. Metropolitan Manila’s lack of urban planning and management, however, have resulted in congestion, lack of open spaces, a polluted environment, poor services, and blighted areas.

The spatial development of Metro Manila evolved into a radio-centric pattern where rapid growth moved outward from its historical nucleus. As the urban population increased, built-up areas from the urban core merged into the urban centers of the smaller peripheral cities and municipalities, leaving very little for metropolitan parks and open spaces. Decentralization is a recognized strategy for stemming the further influx of migrants into Metro Manila as well as equitably distributing economic development to other urban areas in the Philippines. To avoid the ills of Metro Manila, other models of metropolitan development have to be explored for new growth centers.

Michael V. Tomeldan

Since the turnover of Subic Bay in 1993, the Philippine government has subsequently converted the former military facility into a free port zone but has struggled for several years to transform it into a thriving logistics hub. In 2011, the Subic-Clark Alliance for Development (SCAD) initiated studies regarding the consolidation of the Subic Bay Freeport and the four municipalities and one city that surround it into one metropolitan area. The Subic Bay Freeport, three Local Government Units (LGUs) from Bataan Province, and three from Zambales province have a total land area of 1,030 square kilometres.

The intent of the metropolitan study is to draft a blueprint for the future physical development of the Study Area by clearly designating areas for development as well as areas for preservation. The planning approach adopted a careful assessment of development threats and potentials through consultations and thematic mapping and analysis. Areas were carefully analyzed so that land uses could be designated as production, settlement, protection, and infrastructure

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Prof. Hans Peder Pedersen

(Sustainable Cities Block)

Hans Peder Pedersen
Copenhagen, which was a harbour city since the 12th century, has so many similarities with the origins of Manila but took an entirely different direction that transformed it into one of the most sustainable cities in the world. In 1947, Danish architects and planners Peter Bredsdorff and Sten Eiler Rasmussen unveiled a visionary structure plan for the Greater Copenhagen Area that became the basis for its future urban development. The Plan was appropriately dubbed the Finger Plan (Fingerplanen), a metaphor which helped illustrate the radio-centric expansion of the city (the palm) along five radiating corridors (fingers). Unlike Metro Manila, however, the areas (wedges between the fingers) were preserved as forests, agricultural lands and recreational areas. The city expanded outward along five main commuter rail lines (“S-Train) while preserving sizable green spaces around the urbanized nodes. Radial motorways were also later laid out in the green wedges. The Integrated Transport System (vehicular roads, rail systems, bikeways) gave the people a lot of transport options that increased mobility. New housing projects were built (with at least 1,000 meters distance from stations) along the suburban railways to accommodate a growing urban population while retaining the green wedges between the fingers.

The Finger Plan has endured for more than 60 years mainly because of a sustained consultative process of reassessment and refinement to address specific areas or new urban development issues. Copenhagen has benefitted a lot from the foresightedness of the Finger Plan and has been recognized consistently as one of the most liveable cities in the world, the most bicycle-friendly, and one of the most environment-friendly cities.

Arch. Armando N. Alli

(Sustainable Cities Block)

Armando N. Alli
The Subic-Clark-Tarlac Expressway (SCTEX) is a 94-kilometer four-lane divided expressway situated around 90 kilometers north of Metro Manila that connects the Subic Bay Freeport Zone with its 600,000 TEU Container Terminal at Subic Bay in the southwest, the Clark Special Economic Zone with its Diosdado Macapagal International Airport in Pampanga, and the Techno Park in Tarlac City in the northeast. The national government recognized as early as 2000 that the Subic-Clark corridor could be the main engine to both regional and national economic growth, having established the Subic-Clark Alliance for Development Council or SCAD Council to plan for and implement an integrated and coordinated development of the area.
The completed 94-kilometer Subic-Clark-Tarlac Expressway (SCTEx) provides a vital lifeline between three hubs of production and logistics that both government and private sectors are actively pursuing, and which could consequently evolve and merge into a competitive logistics mega-hub in Asia. Aside from boosting the development potentials of the Subic Bay Freeport Zone, the Clark Economic Zone, and the techno-park in Tarlac City, the SCTEx has also created opportunities for complementary industries along the expressway. It is in this context that the Subic-Clark-Alliance for Development Council (SCADC), initiated the formulation of a SCAD Corridor Conceptual Land Use Plan (SCoLUP) for the rational and sustainable development or preservation of lands along the new tollway. The Conceptual Plan of the “SCADC Corridor” considers 5 kilometers on both sides of the expressway covering 100,000 hectares in thirteen Local Government Units (LGUs) in four provinces.

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Arch Raymond Andrew Sih

(Sustainable Cities Block)

Raymond Andrew Sih, UAP, LEED AP
Conventional zoning is essentially a legal framework that initiates development and directs the type, density, and location of land use. However, it lacks the specificity to shape the public realm to be more inclusive and sustainable. Innovative and site specific urban design and regulatory tools if implemented properly can achieve more tangible results in the built environment, such as preserving natural environmental features, protecting the unique character of a community, or controlling the kind of development in more detail. The paper discusses examples of urban design and regulatory tools used both here and abroad, the possibilities in their implementation, and how they can directly influence the physical form and performance of development.

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Danilo A. Silvestre and Lester Valdes Docs

(Sustainable Cities Block)

Danilo A. Silvestre and Lester Valdes

An aerotropolis is a city or urban form with an airport at its core and an economy that capitalizes on the connectivity that the infrastructure offers. The airport-oriented city offers strong and fast linkages for workers, suppliers, passengers, and goods to the global market. The rapid growth of airport-linked commercial enterprises and businesses in the 21st century has prompted many cities around the world to pursue spatial developments that puts the airport at the center, build transport infrastructure that connects it to the supply chain, and introduce land uses that encourage aviation-linked enterprises and complementary developments.

General Santos City in South Cotabato province is one of the fastest urbanizing cities in the Philippines. It has the 600-hectare General Santos International Airport which has been showing a steady growth in passener and cargo traffic. As a city that is widely known for its fishing and agriculture industries, the Study explores a different aerotropolis model that may be more suitable for Genral Santos City.

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Arch Maria Mynn Porciuncula-Alfonso

Agriculture, in Architecture, in Cities
In pursuit of Sustainable Urban Cities and Landscapes

By 2040, Metro Manila will have a population of 13,788,000 (13.8 M) from 2010 - 11,552,100 (11.6 M) reported by National Statistics Office (NSO). Future urban life will be facing harsh conditions not only from global climate change but from high cost of electricity, transportation and food due to our dependency to diminishing fossil fuel. There is no sufficient land in the rural land for increased food needed , as well as the increased demand for fuel will make the production and transport of these produce to urban land highly expensive.

Presently, for our food supplies, we need to conserve our rural farms and start the renaissance of subsistence agriculture in our land and houses, and commercial agriculture in our public and private land and buildings in the cities. Thus, transporting of food from the rural to urban will be less, less vehicles, less gas, less carbon emissions. Then, abundance of vegetation in the buildings and cities, means less use of energy, cleaner air, fresh food and healthy people.

This paper will demonstrate how edible plants and fruit trees can visually enhance the city landscapes and functionally make food more available. Horizontally, we need to grow plants and trees in plazas, parks, streetscapes, squatter free rivers and esteros, school yards, under overpasses, residential front and back yards and other easements. And vertically, to grow plants in buildings like barangay halls, public markets, low cost medium rise housing, residential condominiums, high rise office buildings in their façade, breezeways, walls and roofs.

The vision of appropriate environmentally balanced cities utilizing vegetation that integrate fresh and healthy edible plants and fruit trees in architecturally and culturally acceptable ways, may provide urban livelihood, cool and comfortable living conditions and energy efficient structures of the future low carbon Filipino urban cities and landscapes.

Keywords : Sustainable Urban Landscapes, Sustainable Cities, Urban Agriculture


My name is Maria Mynn Porciuncula-Alfonso. I am currently a faculty member at the College of Architecture, University of Santo Tomas (UST), City of Manila, Philippines. Also, I am completing my doctoral studies in Urban and Regional Planning at the School of Urban and Regional Planning (SURP), University of the Philippines (UP), Diliman, Quezon City, MM Philippines. I took my Master in Tropical Landscape Architecture at UP while my BS in Architecture at UST. My research focus is on developing green, sustainable environments and energy effifient building designs. Formerly, I worked with my Architect husband and son in projects in Metro Manila and other locations in the Philippines.

Presentation Slides
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J.P. Foyagan, J.D. Toribio, and A.D. Comila Docs


DAR-Cordillera/MARO-Kapangan, Benguet/MARO-Buguias-Mankayan, Benguet, respectively

In the third world countries, particularly in the Philippines, the socio-economic, structural and other development interventions are mostly concentrated in the urban areas. Growth in the rural areas are neglected, or in some cases, ignored. Most of the third world countries channel their resources in developing the global cities in order to compete or have equal footing with mega cities in the developed countries.

The Philippines is still an agricultural country with the rural areas as their backbones. Still, 80% Filipinos in the rural areas are living in poverty. It is crucial, therefore, to focus on bridging the gap and sustain the growth in the rural communities to catch up with the fast developing urban areas.

Particularly, the poorest of the poor in the country are the landless indigenous peoples living in highly fragile and vulnerable ecosystems like the Cordillera. This region is home to about 2% of the Philippine population, where 90% are indigenous people collectively known as the Igorots. Though Cordillera is one of the richest in terms of natural resources, the Igorots have limited access to their ancestral lands. Even considered as “squatters of their own land”, the government classified their lands to be under the forest reserves and national parks. However, the evolution of agrarian reform programs had somehow perfected the ownership of at least 220,000 indigenous peoples covering more than 89,000 hectares under its land tenure improvement programs. In recognition, these programs have spurred rural growth in terms of developing the farm-to-market roads, irrigation facilities and other infrastructures, not excluding agricultural and institutional development of the indigenous peoples.


JOELYNDA P. FOYAGAN is presently the Provincial Coordinator for Abra and Mt. Province of the Department of Agrarian Reform of the Cordillera Administrative Region. As such, she coordinates the speedy and smooth implementation of the Land Tenure Program in the provinces covered. Being the program analyst at the Operations Division, she identifies, validates and prioritizes the landholdings for CARP coverage according to program type and phase of implementation. Among others, she does program planning on land acquisition and distribution of lands in the region as well as assists in the conduct of field investigation and provision of pertinent data for valuation of compensable lands. Aside from that, monitoring of the project is also her task while she conducts information drives and campaign on CARP to walk-in clients of the office.
Born in November 16, 1965 in Baguio City, she spent her elementary up to college education in this premier center of education in the North. She took up Associate in Geodetic Engineering at Baguio Colleges Foundation and graduated Bachelor of Science in Education at the Baguio Central University. Her experiences worth mentioning include her being a Head Executive Assistant to the PARO from 1995 to 2001. Presently, her assignment at the Operations Division of DAR-CAR in Baguio City give her opportunities to be one of the contributors of the Cordillera Agrarian Voice and other DAR News letters and issuances.
For more information, she can be contacted through her email address: [email protected] and her mobile number at 09258080868.

Dr. Jane Delfin Toribio and Mayor Roberto Kalaw Canuto Docs


(Municipal Agrarian Reform Officer, Kapangan, Benguet, and Municipal Mayor, Kapangan, Benguet, respectively)

In the beginning, our mother nature was in harmony with its co-creation - the animals, the birds, all the creatures particularly the man. After so many centuries, the earth ultimately changed because of mankind. Today, nurturing of our mother nature became the most popular concerns of men in the world. The present situation is saddening, if not shocking, especially considering the effects of climate change complicated with perplexed problems of all the countries.

Kapangan, Benguet, just a dot in the map of Asia, is still classified as fourth class municipality inhabited by more than 20,000 indigenous peoples. Through the ages, Kapangan takes pride in broadcasting that most people are still practicing indigenous sustainable systems harmoniously with our mother nature. Worthy to mention, their cultures, customs and traditions make people closely knit, happy and peaceful. Their diverse agricultural and environmentally-friendly technologies like natural farming and community-based forest management systems attribute to their simple but firmly-fixed living. Along with these are the other economic activities coupled with their socio-political bearing in their communities led by the exceptionally peaceful and calm political leaders.

In little ways, Kapangan IPs can be said to have helped in the preservation of the creations while building resiliency against climate change and other global concerns. For sure, Kapangan IPs believes that “no Filipino should go hungry in his own native land”. Surely, they do this for our Maker, and in some ways, should also be rewarded.

However, Kapangan’s geophysical and highland characteristics, besides its richness in natural resources turned the municipality as vulnerable and fragile. When neglected or ignored, the indigenous peoples will lost their diversity and harmony.


JANE PUL-OC DELFIN-TORIBIO is the offspring of Mr. Gavino Apalias Campana and Mrs. Corona Pul-oc Campana of Pasdong, Atok, Benguet, Philippines, born in the happy hearts month of February.
She started her formal elementary education in 1969 and high school in 1976. In 1979, she entered college at Mountain State Agricultural College, now Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet. After four years of struggle, she obtained her degree on Bachelor of Science in Agriculture, major in Agricultural Economics. In addition, her taking up units in Education qualified her to take the Professional Board Examination of Teachers, the Civil Service Sub-Professional and the Professional Examinations given by the Civil Service Commission, all of which she passed.
Six days after graduation in March 1983, she was hired as agricultural researcher of MSAC. In 1984, she joined the teaching force of Atok National High School but short lived for barely more than a year. She searched for a greener pasture and transferred at the Ministry of Human Settlements in 1985. In 1987, the Department of Agriculture hired her as Sociologist and she was one of those who operationalize the Highland Agriculture Development Project (HADP).
Coupled to these experiences, the author had attended and participated in several in-service trainings and seminars while pursuing higher education for professional advancement. These enabled her to pass and garnering 4rth from the top (Top 4) nationwide the qualifying examination for the Municipal Agrarian Reform Officers (MAROs) of the Department of Agrarian Reform. With her leadership qualities and other qualifications, she was adjudged as the youngest MARO in the Philippines in 1989 and she is now assigned in the Municipality of Kapangan, Benguet. After hard works and sacrifices especially with the help of his family, she was conferred the degree Doctor of Philosophy in Rural Development by the Benguet State University in March 27, 1998. From then and there, these started her invitations and opportunities to act as local consultant and resource speaker on human resource management, community organizing and strengthening, cooperatives and rural development. She once had an opportunity to present her researches on Land Classification and Upland Sustainable Farming Systems in Tokyo, Japan in 2002 through the Asian Productivity Organization, and Barangay Integrated Development Action in Kapangan towards Water Sanitation and Hygiene (BIDA KA WASH) in Thailand through the Sekiguchi Global Research Association (SGRA) in March 2013.

Robert L. Pangod and Mayor Eduardo T. Latawan, Jr. Docs


(Executive Assistant, Sagada, Mountain Province, and Municipal Mayor, Sagada, Mountain Province, respectively)

Nestled in the heart of the Cordillera mountain range in Northern Philippines, Sagada is naturally endowed with natural wonders and unique indigenous culture, which present huge potential for tourism development. For the past two decades, tourist arrivals have consistently increased thereby contributing to job generation and local economic development. Acting on this growth, the national government started investing hundreds of millions of pesos in tourism infrastructures in an elaborate attempt to turn Sagada into a major tourism hub.

This study seeks to examine how the local stakeholders and their leadership are responding to the hasty infusion of capital and fast-moving transformation of the local tourism industry into an extensive economic enterprise. Incidentally, they are innovating on a community-based ecotourism approach that highlights the collective management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while maintaining biodiversity, traditional life support systems and cultural integrity. Findings of the study underscore the specific conditions and attributes that elevate Sagada’s tourism industry to what it is today and the systematic techniques that are being put into motion to ensure that benefits from tourism redound to all sectors under an equitable political and democratic structure.


ROBERT L. PANGOD, 45 years old, resides in Dagdag, Sagada, 2619 Mountain Province. He graduated his Bachelors of Arts, major in Political Science in Baguio Central University in 1990 and took up at least 18 units Master in Public Administration in Trinity College in the early 2001. His special skills include computer operations (MS Office, SPSS, Adobe Premier Pro), film making, indigenous music and environmental theatre arts. A multilingual guy, he can speak several indigenous dialects in the Cordillera, of course not to exclude Filipino and English.
His experiences ranged from being a researcher, research coordinator, community/project development officer, networking and advocacy coordinator of the several special studies and foreign funded projects in the Cordillera before landing as Head Executive Assistant of the Municipal Mayor of Sagada, Mountain Province. To mention some, Mr. Pangod had joined and was part of the Cordillera Resource Center for Indigenous Peoples Rights (CRC-ICR), University of the Philippines-Cordillera Studies Center (UP-CSC), Central Cordillera Agricultural Program II (CECAP II), Caraballo and Southern Cordillera Agricultural Development Programme (CASCADE), Earthquake Rehabilitation Programme (ERP) and Montanosa Research and Development Center (MRDC). These experiences sprung up to the publications of some of his researches and books. Accordingly, he authored the following, to wit: 1) Holok, An Indigenous Pest Management System in Ifugao, 2) Indigenous Irrigation Management: The Lampisa System of Water Distribution among Sagada’s Ipidlisan, 3) Food Security, Agricultural Biodiversity of the Indigenous Peoples: Food Production Issues in Dandanac, and 4) Sugar Consumption Pattern in the Province of Kalinga and the Potentials of Muscovado Sugar.
For more inquiries, Mr. Pangod can be reached through his mobile phone 09999911801 with [email protected] as his email address.

C.L.Terosa, A.G.Hidalgo, and J.C.Dacanay Docs

Spending Patterns of Filipinos of OFWs:
A Review of Related Literature

Cid L. Terosa, PhD
Senior Economist and Associate Professor
School of Economics
University of Asia and the Pacific

Aurora G. Hidalgo
Senior Researcher
Social Economics Unit
School of Economics
University of Asia and the Pacific

Jovi C. Dacanay
Senior Economist and Faculty Member
School of Economics
University of Asia and the Pacific

Remittances are direct contributions of Overseas Filipinos to the economy. They stem directly from labor migration. As one of the largest labor exporters since the 1970s, the Philippines sends hundreds of thousands of workers to various destinations yearly. Historically, remittances have been rising at remarkable rates. From 2001 to 2011, remittances have grown by 234% or an annual average growth rate of about 12%. Based on the National Accounts of the Philippines from 2008 to 2010, the share of remittances in nominal gross domestic product (GDP) is 13.9% in 2008, 17.6% 2009, and 17.1% in 2010. As share of constant GDP, remittances account for 14.8% of real or constant GDP in 2008, 18.6% in 2009, and 18.1% in 2010.

The objective of this study is to review related literature on the spending patterns of families of OFWs. It aims to gather and review studies on the spending behavior of remittance-recipient households of OFWs. Ultimately, this study aims to establish an empirical foundation for an updated and detailed study of the spending patterns of families of different types of OFWs.

Empirical studies show that OFW households earn, save, and invest more than households without OFW relatives. Based on empirical studies reviewed in this paper, it appears that remittances increase household budget allocation for education, medical care, housing and repair, consumer goods, leisure, gifts, fuel, transportation, communication, household operations, and durable goods. Remittances, however, don’t seem to raise household budget allocation for food eaten outside of the home, tobacco, and alcohol.

Based on surveys, it appears that at least 95% of OFW families allocate more remittances to food, rent, and education. Although surveys show different figures, it appears that at least 60% of OFW families save and at least 85% of these families save in banks. Survey results seem to indicate that more than half of OFW families use remittances to pay medical bills while less than half of OFW families use remittances to pay back loans. OFW households spend more on house and lot, consumer durables, and motor vehicles when economic conditions are good. Conversely, OFW households spend less on the same goods when economic conditions are bad.

Empirical studies imply the need to identify the characteristics or attributes of migrant workers and their families because they have implications on the treatment and use of remittances. Hence, future studies and surveys should identify and analyze the demographic, socioeconomic, psychographic characteristics of OFWs by occupation and geographic origin. Also, empirical studies should determine the demographic, socioeconomic, and psychographic characteristics of OFW families according to the occupation of their OFW relatives and geographic origin.


Jovi C. Dacanay graduated BS Statistics, MS Industrial Economics and MA Economics and is currently pursuing her PhD Economics. She lectures in Statistics, Social Economics and Research and Thesis Seminar in the School of Economics of the University of Asia and the Pacific. Her research includes industrial organization of health care markets, microfinance, social economics and the economics of film

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About 2013年06月

2013年06月にブログ「SGRA in English」に投稿されたすべてのエントリーです。過去のものから新しいものへ順番に並んでいます。




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