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Toriiha@’¹‹”h
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Lit. Torii school. A family of *ukiyo-e •‚¢ŠG artists which became a school, and whose, lineage beginning in the late 17c (Genroku Œ³˜\ era) had continued until the present day. It has done so by acquiring a monopoly of commissions for painting theater posters shibai-e ŽÅ‹ŠG and portrait prints of popular actors *yakusha-e –ðŽÒŠG and by keeping a close relationship with the *kabuki ‰Ì•‘Šê world. The artists of theatrical pictures had to be well versed in the various conventions of kabuki because the work had to be prepared as soon as the program and the cast were decided and sold in the theater at the performances. Their work included paintings on the billbords kanban-e ŠÅ”ŠG, programs banzuke-e ”Ô•tŠG, and pin up portraits.
The founder of the school, Torii Kiyomoto ’¹‹´Œ³ (1645?-1702) was originally a kabuki actor, but started to paint billbords in around 1690. The first master of the school, Kiyonobu ´M (1664-1729), and the second master Kiyomasu ´”{ (act. early 18c) produced many excellent tan-e ’OŠG prints of beautiful women *bijinga ”ül‰æ in addition to kabuki pictures. They invented the style of employing exaggerated deformation, represented by hyoutan ashi •Z’\‘« (gourd-shaped-foot), and wavy lines with thick-and-thin accents, called mimizugaki åtåm•` (earthworm). These techniques were well-suited for depicting actors playing the rough male roles in dramatic poses aragoto rŽ–. This style became a characteristic of the Torii school, and is found in kabuki posters even now.
Among many Toriiha artists who maintained the traditional style established by these early masters of the school, the fourth master Kiyonaga ´’· (1752-1815) attracted special attention as a painter of beautiful ladies before he was obliged to become a master of the school. However, even in theatrical prints, his innovations can be found in such works as degatari-zu oŒê‚è}, in which musicians jikata ’n•û were added, and in his portraits of popular actors off stage, showing their daily lives. Lineage of the Torii school: Kiyomoto ´Œ³ (1645?-1702); Kiyonobu ´M (1664-1729); Kiyomasu ´”{ (?); Kiyomasu 2 (1706-63); Kiyomitsu ´–ž (1735-85); Kiyonaga ´’· (1752-1815); Kiyomine ´•ô (Kiyomitsu II, 1787/8-1868); Kiyomitsu 3 (1832-92); Kiyotada ´’‰ IV (1875-1941); Kiyotada V (1900-76); Kiyomitsu ´Œõ (1938- ).
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