|KEY WORD : art history / paintings|
|A caricature picture *giga 戯画 which was popular in the 17-19c that displayed the Edo period's fondness for improvisation and subtle innuendo. Thought to be so termed after Toba Soujou 鳥羽僧正(1053-1140), the author of the humorous ink-drawn handscrolls sketches, the Choujuu jinbutsu giga 鳥獣人物戯画 (Kouzanji 高山寺, Kyoto). Toba-e were generally rough sketches involving subtle puns or comic situations. Based on various early 18c written sources it appears that this type of caricature became popular between 1716-1736. The earliest extant picture books *ehon 絵本 of this genre are the Keihitsu toba-sha 軽筆鳥羽車, the Toba-e sangokushi 鳥羽絵三国史 and the Toba-e ougi-no-mato 鳥羽絵扇の的. Toba-e designed by Katsushika Hokusai 葛飾北斎 (1760-1849) and Utagawa Hiroshige 歌川広重 (1797-1858) also remain today. In the late 19c, several comic magazines were published under the name "toba-e."|
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