sumigaki 墨画
KEY WORD : art history / paintings
1 A general technical term for painting in black ink *sumi 墨, meaning without color. The term appeared in the Heian period in reference to the technique used for what was called at the time shira-e 白絵 (from the Tang Chinese term paihua /Jp: hakuga 白画). This was a type of painting that used fine black ink outlines without color, which in modern times is called hakubyouga 白描画 (*hakubyou 白描) of soga 素画.

2 A specific technique used for painting with black ink sumi, in which the preliminary lines of human figures and objects of a composition use black ink. These black ink drawings serve as a master or under-drawing *shita-e 下絵.

3 The final ink outlines and details (e.g. for facial features) painted over the colored pigments in *tsukuri-e つくり絵, a major style of *yamato-e やまと絵. These demanded a skillful hand and decisive, controlled brushwork which in workshop production *edokoro 絵所 was the responsibility of the master artist(s).

4 A position at the court affiliated painting atelier kyuutei edokoro 宮廷絵所 of the chief or master artist(s), appointed, at least initially in the Heian period, by competitive exam.


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