|KEY WORD : architecture / folk dwellings|
| 1 A
large window in the front wall frame of a principal living room *hiroma
広間, adjacent to the earthfloored area *doma
土間, of traditional farmhouses nouka 農家, in the early Edo period
in the Kantou 関東 region. The sill was usually about 50cm above the surface
of the hiroma floor and the opening typically occupied half a bay
*ken 間, on either side
of the post at the center of the hiroma facade, making the opening
a full bay in width. This was flanked on either side by a half bay panel
of solid wall *sodekabe
袖壁. A lattice of sturdy vertical timber or bamboo take 竹, bars
stabilized by a pair of horizontal members at mid-height filled the opening.
Behind the lattice, the runners *shikii
敷居 or *kamoi 鴨居, had
two grooves apiece, one for solid wooden sliding panels itado 板戸,
and one for the translucent paper sliding panels *shouji
障子. The sliding panels *katabikido
片引戸, could be slid out of the way behind the sodekabe when not required.
Tradition has it that shishimado were barred to provide protection
against wild boar inoshishi 猪, and wolves ookami 狼, which
were still common in the early Edo period countryside. They were widely
used in farmhouses in the 17c - 18c, except in Chiba prefecture. Shishimado
went out of use during the 18c, as houses became more open to the outside,
and full height sliding doors and sliding rain shutters *amado
雨戸, came into use.
2 In the thatched roof of farmhouses in the Edo period in Akita and Yamagata prefectures, a window made in the roof to allow smoke to escape *kemuridashi 煙出, and as a source of light. The name is believed to be derived from a supposed resemblance to the head of a lion shishi 獅子. Also called *shishiguchi 獅子口.
(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System. No reproduction or republication without written permission.