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shinzou@_
KEY WORD :@art history / iconography
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An image, either in sculpture or painting, of a deity *kami _ in its Shinto or Buddhist/Shinto syncretic *suijaku form. The term is more usually applied to sculpture, while suijaku bijutsu 瑔p tends to be applied more commonly to syncretic art in general, and Shinto art *Shintou bijutsu _p covers all art connected with Shinto apart from architecture. It is believed that in early times there were no images used in Shinto and that the creation and use of images in worship developed after the advent of Buddhism. The early extant Shinto sculptures date from the 9c, while the first instance of the making of a shinzou is believed to be that recorded in TADO JINGUUJI GARAN ENGI SHIZAICHOU x_{N (Record of Properties of the Associated Temple of Tado Shrine), complied in 801, which relates the story of the priest Mangan's conversion of the kami of Tado Shrine in 763 and his subsequent portrayal of the kami in a sculpture. In sculpture kami are often portrayed as seated figures of Japanese noblemen or noblewomen in court dress, but they can also be shown as monks (see *sougyou hachiman m`). They may also be dressed in Chinese style robes and resemble Hindu deities adopted by Buddhism such as *Kichijouten g˓V . Female images are called joshinzou or megamizou _ and male images are called danshinzou or ogamizou j_. There are also works of sculpture, which may be called shinzou, that show syncretic deities, such as *Zaou Gongen . Shinzou could serve as the body of the kami *shintai _ within a shrine . As shintai, they were usually kept secret and were influential only when directly copied as authoritative images of the kami. Shinzou are usually less than life size . They are made of wood or of lacquer over wood *mokushin kanshitsu {S and may be painted in polychrome. They were usually carved from single blocks of wood *ichiboku-zukuri ؑ even after Buddhist sculptures began to be made by piecing together smaller pieces of wood *yoseki-zukuri ؑ around the mid-11c. This, along with a tendency to emphasize the sculpture's cylindrical mass, is felt to show the importance of the tree itself as a basis for the sculpture. 9c shinzou, such as the Hachiman triads of Touji (Kyouougokokuji 썑), Kyoto, somewhat resemble Buddhist sculptures of the Kounin Om through Jougan eras (810-76) in style. However, shinzou are unconstrained by Buddhist iconography and represent specific, single deities, rather than universal types. The tendency to emphasize the weight and mass of the figure that is notable in the 9c continued to mark the style of shinzou to some degree during the next two centuries. In the Kamakura period the resemblance between Buddhist sculptures, portrait sculptures and shinzou is sometimes close; and particularly portrait sculptures and shinzou cannot easily be distinguished. The circumstances of the making of most extant shinzou are unknown. The first sculpture concerning which there are ample contemporary records is the Hachiman in Toudaiji 厛. This sculpture was carved by Kaikei c (fl. 1185-1220), who is well known as a sculptor of Buddhist images, modeled on painting of Hachiman copied from an original believed to be by *Kuukai C.
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