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shakujou@Žàñ
KEY WORD :@ art history / sculptures
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Also ushoujou —Lºñ, chijou ’qñ, and tokujou “¿ñ. Sk: khakkhara. A pilgrim's staff or sistrum. In Japan the shakujou usually consists of a wooden handle or pole topped with a metal finial with two sections, each with three rings. In India, the shakujou's metal rings were originally used by traveling priests to alert small creatures to keep them from accidentally being harmed by a priest when walking in the woods. It was also used to frighten away dangerous snakes or beasts that the priest might have encountered. The shakujou could also serve as a cane to help the priest walk. When begging, he rattled this staff to announce his arrival at the door or gate of a household without breaking the vow of silence. In Japan the shakujou is still used by monks, pilgrims, and practitioners of shugendou CŒ±“¹, a school of Buddhism which teaches ascetic practices in the mountains (see *En no gyouja –ğsŽÒ). A yamabushi ŽR•š or mountain priest may use it for magic or exorcism. In the Shingon ^Œ¾ and Tendai “V‘ä sects, the shakujou is used as a ritual object in special ceremonies. Some have short handles and are held when chanting. Documents state that thirty-two priests rattled shakujou to accompany the chanting at rites celebrating the inauguration in 755 of the Kaidan-in ^’d‰@ (Ordination Pavilion) at Toudaiji “Œ‘厛 in Nara. There are two shakujou from the 8c kept in the *Shousouin ³‘q‰@. One of them has an abstracted pagoda in the center with plant forms on each side. Zentsuuji ‘P’ÊŽ› in Kagawa prefecture owns a remarkable Chinese shakujou from the 8c. The elaborate design has an Amida triad *Amida sanzon ˆ¢–í‘ÉŽO‘¸ in the center flanked by two attendants (two of the *shitennou Žl“V‰¤ or Four Guardian Kings) on each side. One side has a standing Amida and the other has a seated Amida. The guardians are back to back and in this way all four of the shitennou are represented. There is a large flaming jewel *houju •óŽì at the top of the finial. From the Heian period survive one bronze shakujou finial and one long iron shakujou from Rinnouji —Ö‰¤Ž› in Tochigi prefecture and Tesshuuji “SMŽ› in Shizuoka prefecture. There are various shakujou from the Kamakura period at Touji “ŒŽ› in Kyoto, Hasedera ’·’JŽ› in Nara, Sefukuji Ž{•ŸŽ› in Osaka, and at the MOA Art Museum in Shizuoka prefecture. The shakujou is used as a *jimotsu Ž•¨ (hand-held attribute) for for example *Jizou ’n‘ , a deity dressed as a priest. Jizou is most commonly represented with a houju in the left hand and a shakujou in the right after the Heian period. Although missing now, it is obvious from the hand position that the early Heian sculpture of Jizou from Seisuiji ´…Ž› in Matsushiro ¼‘ã, Nagano prefecture, originally held a shakujou. Both *Fukuukenjaku Kannon •s‹ó㮍õŠÏ‰¹ (the rope-snaring Kannon), and *Senju Kannon çŽèŠÏ‰¹ (Thousand-armed Kannon), usually hold a shakujou in one of the right hands. It symbolizes compassion when an attribute of *Kannon ŠÏ‰¹. The 8c sculptures of Fukuukenjaku Kannon housed in the Sangatsudou ŽOŒŽ“° (also known as *Hokkedou –@‰Ø“°) at Toudaiji “Œ‘厛 and the sculptures of Senju Kannon from Toushoudaiji “‚µ’ñŽ›, both in Nara, held shakujou. Although unusual, according to the iconographic manual entitled *KAKUZENSHOU Šo‘Tçâ (by priest Kakuzen Šo‘T; 1176-1213), *Yakushi –òŽt may be depicted with a bowl *hachi ”« in the right hand and a shakujoiu in the left, instead of holding the customary *yakuko –ò’Ù (medicine jar). There is a 10c painting of a seated Yakushi with a shakujou in Cave 17 at Dunhuang (Jp: Tonkou “ÖàŠ).
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