|KEY WORD : art history / sculptures|
|Three horizontal grooves in the neck of a Buddha *nyorai 如来 or Bodhisattva *bosatsu 菩薩 statue. Often included in the list of 32 characteristics of Buddha *sanjuunisou 三十二相, which symbolize his superhuman perfection. These grooves were found on most nyorai and bosatsu statues, with the exception of some made in the Asuka period (5-6c). A good example is the seated Jizou Bosatsu 地蔵菩薩 in the lecture hall of Kouryuuji 広隆寺, Kyoto (wood, 9c). Some figures have only one or two neck-grooves, but these are still known as sand.|
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