|KEY WORD : art history / sculptures|
|Three horizontal grooves in the neck of a Buddha *nyorai 如来 or bodhisattva *bosatsu 菩薩 statue. Often included in the list of 32 characteristics of Buddha *sanjuunisou 三十二相, which symbolize his superhuman perfection. These grooves were found on most nyorai and bosatsu statues, with the exception of some made in the Asuka period. A good example is the Jizou Bosatsuzou 地蔵菩薩像 (wood, 9c) in Kouryuuji Koudou 広隆寺講堂, Kyoto. Some figures have only one or two neck-grooves, but these are still known as sand.|
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