@
oubaku kenchiku@‰©Ÿ@Œš’z
KEY WORD :@architecture / buildings & structures
@
Architecture introduced at temples of the Oubaku ‰©Ÿ@ sect, in the Edo period. This sect is one of the three Zen ‘T sects. The architecture was very strongly influenced by Chinese architecture of the late Ming and early Ching dynasties. Characteristics of the architecture can best be seen at the head temple, Manpukuji äݕŸŽ› (1654) in Kyoto. The ground plan reveals that the temple faces west. The entrance gate, Soumon ‘–å, opens to a path that makes a 90K angle turn to the right and leads to the main gate, Sanmon ŽO–å. From there, the most important buildings are situated on a 180K axis leading to a building called Tennouden “V‰¤“a (1668). An unusual characteristic is a large terrace, getsudai ŒŽ‘ä, in front of the main worship hall *Daiyuuhouden ‘å—Y•ó“a, corresponding to the *butsuden •§“a in other sects. The Daiyuuhouden and terrace face the Tennouden on the same axis. A lecture hall *hattou –@“° is on the same axis a short distance behind the Daiyuuhouden. On either side are priests' dormitories. The abundance of roofed, colonnaded, open corridors *kairou ‰ñ˜L, leading from the lecture hall on the east and west sides, from one building to another, is typical of Chinese temple plans during the late Ming and early Ching. To the east of the central axis are a hall for offering food saidou Ö“°, a building called garandou ‰¾—•“° and the belfry *shourou à˜O. On the west side are the meditation hall *zendou ‘T“°, the founder's hall *soshidou ‘cŽt“°, and drum tower *korou ŒÛ˜O. On the west side, corresponding roughly to an area between the main gate and the Tennouden, is an enclosure that is accessible to a colonnaded corridor from an opening a little beyond the drum tower. Aside from a small pond and garden, there is another founder's hall, called *kaisandou ŠJŽR“°, containing the founder's image and a mortuary tablet. Behind the kaisandou up a long flight of steps is a small hall called *shariden ŽÉ—˜“a, enshrining the founder, Ingen Ryuuki ‰BŒ³—²ûg (1592-1673), who came to Japan in 1654, introduced the Oubaku sect and began the construction of Manpukuji in 1661. Many distinctly Chinese characteristics inherent in the buildings at Manpukuji are easily recognized. The main buildings are constructed on a large scale, and have a 1-bay deep open colonnade across the front. The ceiling in the open bay of the main worship hall is made with curved rafters *oubaku tenjou ‰©Ÿ@“Vˆä, lobster beams *ebikouryou ŠC˜V“ø—À, and rainbow beams *kouryou “ø—À. Floors in all the main halls are paved with square-cut stones placed diagonally, a method of laying stones called *shihanjiki Žl”¼•~. The type of bracket complexes vary from building to building. The main worship hall and enshrinement hall have closely packed, Zen style bracket complexes *zenshuuyou tokyou ‘T@—l“l‚«‚傤. Otherwise, bracket complexes are the simple 1-stepped type *degumi o‘g, or the 3-on-1 at right angle type *demitsudo oŽO“l. Several buildings have no bracket complexes, but some have bracket-shaped supports with moldings, mochiokuri kurigata Ž‘—ŒJŒ`. Roofing is traditional tile *hongawarabuki –{Š¢•˜ on hip-and-gable roofs *irimoya-zukuri “ü•ê‰®‘¢. The ridges of the main worship hall and the kaisandou have fish-tail ornaments *shachi éÍ, with the form of the precious jewel *houju •óŽì, in the center. Again indicative of the strong Chinese influence, fret-patterned railings surround the kaisandou and the lecture hall. The main worship hall and the kaisandou have additional aisles *mokoshi ÖŠK, beyond the peripheral areas *hisashi ›ù. The addition of these aisles with their pent roofs sometimes gives the false impression that the building is two storeyed. The base stones *soseki ‘bÎ, under the pillars in oubaku kenchiku became elaborately carved, as for example with a motif of sacred animals. Another example of oubaku kenchiku is at Soufukuji ’•ŸŽ›, in Nagasaki prefecture, a building begun by Chinese merchants in 1629. By 1652 the temple arrangement in the Oubaku style was complete. The main gate is unique. It has a high, white plastered lower part with a large arched entrance, a tiled pent roof surrounding it, a balustrade an upper area covered by a steep hip-and-gable roof, and the ridge is decorated with fish-tail ornaments on each end. There is a sacred jewel in the center.
@
@

@
REFERENCES:
@
EXTERNAL LINKS: 
@@
NOTES
@

(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
ŒfÚ‚̃eƒLƒXƒgEŽÊ^EƒCƒ‰ƒXƒg‚ȂǁA‘S‚ẴRƒ“ƒeƒ“ƒc‚Ì–³’f•¡»E“]Ú‚ð‹Ö‚¶‚Ü‚·B
@