nawabari 縄張
KEY WORD : architecture / castles
Castle plan; general term for the layout of a castle and its component structures. Lit. stretched rope, the term is said to derive from the fact that originally a rope was stretched between stakes, positioned at intervals, to determine the placement of the castle compound and components. Before the 17c precise drawings were not made; a general plan of a castle and its surroundings were made directly, according to the lay of the land. Fundamental to the plan is the placement of the enclosures *kuruwa 郭, moats *hori 堀, earth and stone ramparts *doi 土居 and sekirui 石塁, entrances *koguchi 虎口 and roads. Castles are classified into single-compound and multi-compound structures. Multiple-compound castles were constructed in a number of different layouts, including concentric circles, concentric squares, plans with compounds aligned along an axis or those with whirlpool layouts or star-shaped plans. They are called *renketsu tenshu 連結天守 *teikakushiki 梯郭式, goryoukakushiki 五稜郭式. Plans are also conceived in terms of the basic function of the castles: some are primarily defensive, whilst others are offensive installations. Early modern Japanese military scholars, using the principles of Chinese yin and yan thought, termed defensive castle plans in-no-nawa 陰の縄, and offensive castles plans you-no-nawa. 陽の縄. Similar terminology was applied to component castle structures.

a) *honmaru 本丸 b) *ni-no-maru 二の丸 c) san-no-maru 三の丸

*in'you-no-kuruwa 陰陽の郭 

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