|KEY WORD : architecture / tea houses|
Rikyuu's 千利休 (1522-91) secret book of tea ceremony which consists of seven volumes
entitled: Memoranda OBOEGAKI 覚書, Parties KAI 会; Shelves TANA
棚; Drawing Room SHOIN 書院; Twenty -two Portable Shelves DAISU
台子; Cross out SUMIBIKI 墨引; and After Death METSUGO 滅後. There
is also a preface by Nanbou Soukei 南坊宗啓 (?-1624?) The first six volumes were completed
during Rikyuu's life time, while "After Death" was completed posthumously. The
seven volumes were complied by Tachibana Jitsuzan 立花実山 (1655-1708), a vassal of
Lord Kuroda Tsunamaso 黒田綱政 of Fukuoka (now Fukuoka prefecture), in 1690, and he
is considered to be the book's editor as well. In his book KIROBENGI 岐路弁疑
(1703), Jitsuzan explains that the five volumes of Rikyuu's secret book of tea
ceremony RIKYUU HIDEN CHANOYUSHO 利休秘伝茶湯書 were owned by a Kyoto resident,
and he had copies made in 1686. Two volumes, SUMIBIKI and METSUGO
were owned by an Osaka resident and copied in 1690.
Volume 1: 'Memoranda', is an outline of tea ceremony and is written in a question and answer form, in which Soukei poses questions and Rikyuu answers. This opening volume asserts that the primary purpose of tea ceremony is to pursue and attain salvation through Buddhism. Further, 'Memoranda' states that "the room in which tea ceremony is performed does not have to be large. It is enough that it does not leak and that the food served is enough to provide sustenance." The method of making tea is based on the use of the utensils for serving tea placed on the portable shelves called *daisu 台子. The tea ceremony should capture the essense and spirit of Zen 禅 Buddhism.
Volume 2: 'Party' is a retelling of Volume One but the participants have changed. It is apparent that an effort was made to create a different sort of book but that effort failed. 'Party' may also be called Rikyuu's 100 party records.
Volume 3: 'Shelves' is a graphic representation of the development of the tea ceremony. Displays of 4 1/2 mat layouts *yojouhan 四畳半, are shown. Also included are representations of portable shelves, which have existed since the time of Murata Jukou 村田珠光 (1423-1502).
Volume 4: 'Drawing Room' illustrates tea ceremony displays in rooms of *shoin 書院 style.
Volume 5: 'Portable Shelves' contains illustrations of the tea ceremony utensils displayed on daisu. These were drawn on sheets of cut paper, kirigami 切紙. The design of each given daisu and the arrangement of utensils were given to Nanbou Soukei by Soueki 宗易 (Rikyuu's lifetime name). Rikyuu's proportions determined by a carpenter's square *kanejaku 曲尺 for the daisu were taken from Volume 3 and added to this volume. However, proportions of the tea ceremony room based on the use of a carpenter's square were minutely given.
Volume 6: 'Cross Out' takes up the carpenter's square proportions as its opening subject. Soukei goes from there to state in minute detail Rikyuu's methods and opinions on the tea ceremony as well as his own understanding of these various points. Illustrations are included. Rikyuu lived to revise and add a word of approval to this volume, but because of the subtleties and importance of the matters discussed, carpenter's square Rikyuu later asked Soukei to burn it or use it as scrap. (Sumibiki means to cross out with ink). By this, Soukei explains, Rikyuu meant that the volume should be seen only by himself.
Volume 7: 'After Death' is generally seen as a supplement to Volume 6, in which Soukei documents his cherished memories of his teacher. It is considered to be a fine summary of NANBOUROKU.
NANBOUROKU was edited by Tachibana Jitsuzan with the assistance of Han'unsai 半雲斎, Ebi Ryougi 衣斐了義, and Mitani Kosai 三谷古斎. These editors were secretive about the contents of NANBOUROKU and required those using the work to take an oath of secrecy regarding its contents to prevent them from becoming widely known. However in 1705, Jitsuzan and Ryougi (Kosai, the third editor, had died) permitted four copies of NANBOUROKU to be made for Neisetsusai Kakugen Souboku 寧拙斎廓厳宗僕 (brother of Jitsuzan), Kohon 固本 (son of Ryougi), Jitoku 自得, Ooga Douon 大賀道恩, and Jitsuzan's heir, Kyokoku 虚谷, bringing the total extant to five. This was also kept secret. In 1712, permission to copy NANBOUROKU was also obtained by Andou Sadafusa 安藤定房 (1672-1743). An unauthorized copy of NANBOUROKU seemed to have been made by Shishisai Kasahara Doukei 止々斎笠原道桂 in 1718. Doukei was a disciple of Jitsuzan and it is assumed that he somehow obtained the seals of Neisetsu 寧拙, Jitoku 自得 and Kyokoku 虚谷. It was from Sadafusa's copy that many other copies were made and thus the reputation of NANBOUROKU began to spread. Toward the end of the Edo period, it was used as reference material for CHANOYU ICHIESHUU 茶湯一会集. It was about this time that researchers also began to take notice of NANBOUROKU, with the proportions based on the 'Carpenter's Square' in Volume 6 being of particular interest. A study of NANBOUROKU by Tanaka Senshou 田中仙樵 (1875-1960) was published in 1918, by Hosokawa Kaiekidou 細川開益堂, appending the work to nine volumes. The original seven books of NANBOUROKU were scroll-style volumes and had scraps of tanned paper as covers. Bamboo sticks were attached to the ends with a flat cotton cord. Each volume was named but the collection itself was unnamed. It is believed that the priest Kogai 古外 Suufukuji 崇福寺 named Jitsuzan's copied books KISSA 喫茶, but Jitsuzan's naming of each volume is considered to be the most authoritative. 'NANBOUROKU Memoranda' and 'NANBOUROKU Party' came later. There is little doubt that NANBOUROKU or 'Tea is a good tree in the South', came from CHAKYOU 茶経. To conclude, it might be said that NANBOUROKU is a book that praises Rikyuu's tea ceremony. Even though the book was authored and revised by Tachibana Jitsuzan at the end of the 17c there is no doubt of its being an important text in trying to attain the tea ceremony ideal during the Edo period.
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