|Momoyama jidai 桃山時代|
|KEY WORD : art history / general terms|
|Also Azuchi-momoyama jidai 安土桃山時代. Lit. peach mountain period. The Momoyama period (1568-1615) during which Japan was gradually unified under the two powerful warlords, Oda Nobunaga 織田信長 (1534-82) and Toyotomi Hideyoshi 豊臣秀吉 (1536-98). Its name stems from Hideyoshi's residence at Fushimi 伏見, where, after his death, many peach, momo 桃 trees were planted. Azuchi 安土, often included by political historians, was the location of Nobunaga's residence on the shores of Lake Biwa 琵琶. 1568 is the date of Nobunga's entrance into Kyoto as pacifier of the warfare which had ravaged the country. A beginning date of 1573, the abdication date of the last shogun, Ashikaga Yoshiaki 足利義昭 (1537-97), is also sometimes given. Alternate end dates include 1600 ; the battle of Sekigahara 関ヶ原 and 1603 ; Tokugawa Ieyasu 徳川家康 (1542-1616) is declared the first Tokugawa shogun. 1615 marks the Summer Osaka Campaign, Osaka natsu no jin 大坂夏の陣 at which the military might and political influence of the Toyotomi were finally destroyed. The period is known for gorgeous and magnificent artistic and architectural achievements carried out under the two unifiers (see *kinpeki shouhekiga 金碧障壁画), as well as the influence of Europe under the Portuguese. Boldly decorated large-scale surfaces in bright opaque pigments *dami-e 濃絵 on a background of gold leaf, kinpeki 金碧 or gold paint, kindei 金泥 were popular interior decorations for grand castles and shogunal residences. This style was pioneered by Kanou Eitoku 狩野永徳 (1543-90), then furthered by other artists including Hasegawa Touhaku 長谷川等伯 (1539-1610), Kaihou Yuushou 海北友松 (1533-1615), and Soutasu 宗達 (?-1640). Genre painting, in the form of *rakuchuu rakugai-zu 洛中洛外図 (paintings of scenes in and around Kyoto) became a major popular art form. Also included in genre painting are depictions of westerners in Japan (see *nanban-e 南蛮絵).|
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