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kyouyaki@‹žÄ
KEY WORD :@art history / crafts
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Kyoto ware. General name of the ceramic wares of Kyoto (except *rakuyaki ŠyÄ), beginning in the Momoyama period and often decorated with polychrome enamels. In the early 17c, a potter (or potters) from Seto £ŒË moved to Awataguchi ˆ¾“cŒû and made copies of Seto ware *setoyaki £ŒËÄ in the *karamono “‚•¨ (Chinese) and Kourai ‚—í (Korean), sabi-e çöŠG (rusty painting), and *sometsuke õ•t (blue-and-white china) styles. Between 1655 and 58, Nonomura Ninsei –ìX‘ºm´ perfected *iro-e FŠG techniques by employing aspects of oshikoujiyaki ‰Ÿ¬˜HÄ together with the styles of Chinese kouchiyaki ŒğæäÄ and *shippou Žµ•ó (cloisonne). Ninsei's luxurious tea-related wares, made at his kiln in Omuro ŒäŽº near Ninnaji m˜aŽ›, were patronized by aristocrats and samurai Ž˜, establishing a strong patron base for kyouyaki. Ogata Kenzan ”öŒ`Š£ŽR (1663-1743) developed these traditions at the end of the Genroku Œ³˜\ era (1688-1704). Later most kyouyaki kilns moved to the Gojouzaka ŒÜğâ area below Kiyomizudera ´…Ž›. In the Bunka •¶‰» and Bunsei •¶­ eras (1804-30), Okuda Eisen ‰œ“c‰nì (1753-1811) and Aoki Mokubee Â–Ø–Ø•Ä (1767-1833) made porcelains. With the fashion for green tea sencha ÷’ƒ, Chinese-style sometsuke and iro-e jiki FŠGŽ¥Ší (multi colored porcelains) dominated with these iro-e jiki commonly called *kiyomizuyaki ´…Ä. At this time such great potters as Takahashi (Ninnami) Douhachi ‚‹´(mˆ¢–í)“¹”ª (1783-1855) and Ogata Shuuhei ”öŒ`Žü•½ (1788-1830) gained fame. Because much kyouyaki derives from foreign models, the ware exhibits a wide range of techniques: pieces may be wheel thrown, formed by hand or using molds: Stamp inka ˆó‰Ô, comb kushime ‹ù–Ú, inlay *zougan Û›Æ, and slip trailing itchin ƒCƒbƒ`ƒ“ are common design techniques; and dipping, dripping, trailing, painting and spraying are used to apply the primarily mineral glazes.
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NOTES
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