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kyouji@˜eŽ˜
KEY WORD :@art history / sculptures
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Also written ‹²Ž˜. Also wakishi ˜eŽm, wakidachi ˜e—§. Also pronounced attendant figures. In groups of Buddhist statues such as triads *sanzonbutsu ŽO‘¸•§ or groups of five images, the central figure is known as *chuuson ’†‘¸ and the figures to the right and left are known as kyouji. The attendants who accompany each deity are chosen according to Buddhist scripture, although these groupings were not firmly established in Japan until the Nara period. Groups of statues made in earlier periods show considerable variation. The attendants are usually arranged below the principal image or are smaller in size in order to emphasize the stature of the central image. Characteristic groupings are *Amida ˆ¢–í‘É appearing with *Kannon ŠÏ‰¹ and *Seishi ¨ŽŠ as attendants *Yakushi –òŽt depicted with Nikkou “úŒõ on the right (as seen from the front) and Gakkou ŒŽŒõ on the left (see *Nikkou Gakkou “úŒõEŒŽŒõ), and *Shaka Žß‰Þ with *Monju •¶Žê and *Fugen •Œ«. Shaka is also found with attendants Yakuou –ò‰¤ and Yakujou –òã, or with *Taishakuten ’éŽß“V and *Bonten ž“V. Kyouji were not only used in Buddhist art but are also found in other contexts. Portraits of Chinese emperors and nobility also have attendant figures, as do many portraits of Shoutouku Taishi (see *Shoutoku Taishishizou ¹“¿‘¾Žq‘œ) and other Japanese Buddhist patriarchs and high priests *kousouzou ‚‘m‘œ. During the Heian period the rise of Esoteric Buddhism mikkyou –§‹³ was accompanied by various new images in the form of deities with attendants. Frequent triads included *Fudou Myouou •s“®–¾‰¤ with *Kongara douji ‹Ü‰Þ—…“¶Žq and *Seitaka douji §‚½‰Þ“¶Žq, or *Bishamonten ”ù¹–å“V attended by *Kichijouten ‹gË“V and Zennishi douji ‘PäVŽq“¶Žq.
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NOTES
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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