|KEY WORD : art history / paintings|
|Also written 暈取. Also called *ungen 繧繝. A general term for shading. It is thought that the idea of shading in painting came to China during the early Tang dynasty through India from the West. Shading techniques are already evident in extant paintings from as early as the 7c in Japan. The paintings in Houryuuji *Kondou 法隆寺金堂 are early examples. However, whereas shading or chiaroscuro in Western art is determined by the direction of light on the object, non-Western painting is unconcerned with the light source. Rather, gradations of color or ink are used to give a three-dimensional feeling to figures or for decorative effects on garments. Generally, these gradations of dark pigments are applied alongside the outlines of the object. Another kind of shading jiguma 地隈 may also be used to give a sense of atmosphere to the empty background space in paintings. Other shading techniques, such as teriguma 照隈, *kaeriguma 返暈 and sakaguma 反隈, operate on a concept that is the opposite from the usual idea of shading. A kind of "reverse" shading effect is created by adding white or bright pigments or gold or silver to dark pigments for accent or highlight alongside the outlines.|
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