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Koushi @Eq
KEY WORD :@art history / paintings
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Ch: Kongzi. Confucious (551-479 BC). The seminal Chinese philosopher of the late Spring and Autumn period. His family name was Kong (Jp: Kou E), his personal name was Qiu (Jp:Kyuu u), and he used the pseudonym Zhongni (Jp: Chuuji ). The English name Confucious derives from the honorary title Kong fuzi (Jp:Kou Fushi Evq). Born to a poor but noble family in the small state of Lu D(modern Shandung R province), Confucious' love of learning and insistence on moral rectitude earned the position of tutor to the sons of the ruling class. Although he certainly desired a more public post --- and later biographies transform him into a successful statesman --- there is no indication that he achieved such a position. Accompanied by several disciples, Confucious spent 13 years (497-484 BC) traveling through several small states seeking a ruler to listen to his teaching. Eventually he returned to Lu where he died in 479BC. Confucious' apotheosis in the Han dynasty (he was considered a divine sage, omiscent and morally infallible) led to the building of Confucian shrines and the production of portrait statues and paintings. Traditional painting subjects include: illustrated biographies Koushiden-zu Eq`}; Confucious in a philosophical dialogue with Laozi (Jp: Roushi Vq) during a trip to Zhou Kou Rou mondou-zu EVⓚ}; Confucious lecturing disciples while sitting on a platform beneath an apricot tree Koushi Kyoudan-zu Eqǒd}; Confucious watching a flowing stream Koushi kanga-zu Eqω͐}. Another group of paintings show Confucious with all or some of his 10 disciples Koumon jittetsu E\N (Ch: Kongmen shizhe). The disciples include Yan Hui (Jp: Gan Kai ), Min Ziqian (Jp: Bin Shiken {qy), Ran Poiu (Jp: Zen Hakugyuu f), Zhong Gong (Jp: Chuu Kyuu |), Zai Wo (Jp: Sai Ga ɉ), Zi Kong (Jp: Shi Kou qv), Ran Yu (Jp: Zen Yuu fL), Zi Lu (Jp: Shi Ro qH), Zi Yu (Jp: Shi Yuu q), and Zi Xia (Jp: Shi Ka q). In Japan, beginning in the Edo period various depictions of Confucious were produced to aid the dissemination of Confucianism. There are well-known portraits by Kanou Tan'yuu TH (1602-74) and Kanou Tsunenobu M (1636-1713), and a Kou Rou mondou-zu by Watanabe Kazan nӉ؎R (1793-1841).
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