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koubai@Œù”z
KEY WORD :@architecture / general terms
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Incline, slope, or pitch. Applied especially to the incline of the roof, yane koubai ‰®ªŒù”z, in traditional Japanese architecture. The roof pitch is determined by using the foundation as the base angle, i.e., the horizontal line. Then a right angle is formed by erecting an imaginary perpendicular, chuukou koubai ’†ŠbŒù”z. The measurements of the resulting right-angled triangle are used to determine the degree of pitch. For exampleF a) the pitch expressed as the angle between the hypotenuse and the base line is called kakudo koubai Šp“xŒù”z; b) the pitch expressed as the vertical measure divided by the horizontal measure (i.e.. the tan of the angle in (a) above) is called bunsuu koubai •ª”Œù”z. For example, in figure 1, the bunsuu koubai is a/b, or tana. c) the pitch expressed as the ratio of the vertical measure against the horizontal, when the vertical is expressed in sun ¡ and the horizontal is taken as one shaku ŽÚ, equivalent to 10 sun. This is called sunkoubai ¡Œù”z or sunpou koubai ¡–@Œù”z. For example, in figure 2, the incline is expressed as 4 sunkoubai. d) A 45 degree slope is known as *kanekoubai ‹éŒù”z. e) the pitch expressed as the ratio of the vertical measure against the hypotenuse, when the vertical is expressed in sun ¡ and the hypotenuse is taken as one shaku. This is called *hirakoubai •½Œù”z. For example, in figure 3, the incline is expressed as 3 hirakoubai. f) Very steep inclines of more than 45 degrees are called kaeshikoubai •Ô‚µŒù”z or norikoubai æ‚èŒù”z. This is measure in one of two ways: (i) The angle in excess of 45 degrees is considered to be the kaeshikoubai. In figure 4, 45 degrees are subtracted, and a new right-angled triangle is drawn as shown. The pitch is then calculated as described in (e) above; in this case the kaeshikoubai is 3 sun because the hypotenuse is 1 shaku and the shorter side of the triangle is 3 sun. (ii) The kaeshikoubai is defined as the angle ABC in figure 5, using a version of the sun method described in (c) above, although this time the ratio is expressed as the horizontal measure against the vertical. The example in the diagram gives a kaeshikoubai of 4 sun , as the horizontal is 4 sun and the vertical, one shaku.
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(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
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