|KEY WORD : architecture / general terms|
ni 荷. Lit. load. The downward pressure exerted by the roof structure,
purlins, transverse beams, etc. on the lower framework of a wooden building.
External pressures from natural causes such as snow, earthquake, wind velocity
and the expansion and contraction of materials due to temperature extremes
must all be considered to calculate the strength needed for the roof structure.
Related terms include: seikajuu 靜荷重, a dead load, used when calculating
the weight and strength of a beam or an entire roof; juukajuu 重荷重,
a very heavy load; idou kajuu 移動荷重, a shifting load. The weight of
structural members constitutes a still load. External pressures constitute
a heavy load. A shifting load is exemplified by Houryuuji *Gojuu-no-tou 法隆寺五重塔, which is constructed
around a central pillar *shinbashira
心柱 so that it can sway safely in violent winds or during earthquakes.
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