|KEY WORD : art history / paintings|
| Ch: jiehua.
Lit. boundary painting. Both a painting technique and a painting genre in
China. As a technical term, kaiga refers to the use of a straight
edge or compass for the precise rendering of man-made objects, such as architecture,
boats, and wagons. The technique seems to have originated very early in
the need of artisans and builders for accurate mechanical and architectural
drawings. One of the earliest extant uses of the technique is found in the
wall-paintings of the tomb of Prince Yide (Jp: Itoku い徳) dated 706 in Shanxi
陜西 Province. The careful renderings of realistic architectural and mechanical
detail can be seen in paintings (sometimes referred to as okubokuga
屋木画) of many Chinese artists. The term kaiga is applied as a genre,
however, only to the meticulous lines and requisite skill found in the work
of certain professional non-literati painters. The 12c handscroll Spring
Festival of the River, Chingming shanghe (Jp: Seimei jouka 清明上河) by
Zhang Zeduan (Jp: Chou Takutan 張択端) in the Palace Museum, Beijing, is a representative
example. In Japan, a similar technique called yataibiki 屋台引 was used
extensively for the depictions of architecture in picture scrolls *emaki
絵巻 of the Heian period, although paintings employing the yataibiki
technique were not considered as a separate genre.
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