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kabuto@™h
KEY WORD :@art history / sculptures
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Also written Š•. A helmet, usually made of iron. The earliest Japanese helmets were made in the Kofun period. There were two types: the shoukakutsuki kabuto ÕŠp•t™h which has a raised front called shoukakubu ÕŠp•” and a low rim, and the mabisashitsuki kabuto ”û”Ý•t™h which is hemispherical with a horizontal visor called *mabisashi ”û”Ý. The crown of the helmet is called hachi ”«, and featured iron strips tomebyou —¯•e that were tacked to the rim at the back and sides to protect neck *shikoro èC. During subsequent centuries the construction of helmets became more complex, and their size increased. This is well illustrated by the hoshikabuto ¯™h (star-helmet) typical of the Kamakura period. Radiating metal strips are fixed to the crown with large tacks. The helmet was often named according to the size, shape and number of the tacks, called hoshi ¯. Representative features of the hoshikabuto are: the high hoe-shaped decoration kuwagata maedate ŒLŒ`‘O—§ with an animal head at the base (see *maedate ‘O—§, *shigami Ž‚Šš); the circular hole in the top centre of the crown tamaberi ‹Ê‰ often used to support other ornaments; a ring of petals *kikuza ‹eÀ around the tamaberi; a chevron-shaped edge aoibaza ˆ¨—tÀ (hollyhock-leaf pedestal) surrounding the kikuza. The number of pointed tips on the aoibaza corresponded to the number of metal strips attached to the crown, and hoshi were used on the tips of the aoibaza. Strips with leaf-shaped tips were called shinodare èM‚ and were sometimes made of gilt-bronze. The hoshikabuto has a visor, cords shimeo ”E, and the sides of the rim are inverted *fukikaeshi •Ô. The layers of the rim are numbered, and the names hachitsuke-no-ita ”«•t‚̔ and hishinui-no-ita •H–D‚̔ refer to the highest and lowest layers respectively. The hoshikabuto and its variations continued to be used until the late Muromachi period, although a range of new shapes and styles of helmet appeared. Examples include: the sujikabuto ‹Ø™h (veined helmet), popular in the Nanbokuchou period; shiinomigata kabuto ’ÅŽÀŒ`™h (acorn-shaped helmet), with a pointed tip; momogatakabuto “Œ`™h (peach-shaped helmet), a helmet influenced by western European models with a ridge along the top; eboshi ‰G–XŽq, derived from Nara period hats of lacquered paper ichinotani kabuto ˆê‚Ì’J™h (single-valley helmet), said to be named after the steep valley Ichinotani ˆê‚Ì’J in Hyougo prefecture. In Buddhist sculpture, male guardian deities *ten “V are depicted in helmets. Two distinct styles can be seen; the first, found on Heian and pre-Heian figures is strongly influenced by Chinese helmets. The helmet fits closely over the head, and can be seen on the Jikokuten ryuuzou Ž‘“V—§‘œ in Toudaiji “Œ‘厛, Nara. The second style, predominant from the Kamakura period is illustrated by Konpiraou ‹à”ä—…‰¤ in Rengeouin ˜@‰Ø‰¤‰@, Kyoto. It is much larger, elevated up, off the head to the point where the hair is visible. It has a visor.
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