@
juuroku rakan@\˜Z—…Š¿
KEY WORD :@art history / iconography
@
Sixteen arhats *rakan —…Š¿. The saintly ascetics who gathered at the death and nirvana nehan Ÿ¸žÏ of the Buddha Sakyamuni *Shaka Žß‰Þ and were ordered by him to remain in this world as witnesses to the truth of the Law or Buddhist teachings. Typical depictions in painting or sculpture show them with aged faces, emaciated bodies and the frugal clothing of Indian ascetics or wisemen. As listed in the Fazhuji (Jp: HOUJUUKI –@Z‹L) translated into Chinese by Xuanzang (Jp: Genjou Œºš÷: 602-64), the sixteen are: Bindorabaradaja •o“x—…æ뗅‘Äè‹ (Sk: Pindolabharadraja); Kanakabassa ‰Þ‘ø‰Þ”°çA (Sk:Kanakavatsa); Kanakabaridaja ‰Þ‘ø‰ÞæëçؑÂè‹ (Sk: Kanakabharadraja); Subinda ‘h•p‘É (Sk: Subinda); Nakora ‘ø‹——… (Sk:Nakula); Badara æë‘É—… (Sk: Bhadra); Karika ‰Þ–‰‰Þ (Sk:Kalika); Bajaraputara ”°è‹—…•¤‘½—… (Sk: Vajraputra); Jubaka œú”Ž‰Þ (Sk:Jivaka); Hantaka ”¼‘õ‰Þ (Sk:Panthaka); Ragora —…œ€—… (Sk:Rahula); Nagasena “߉¾Ò“ß (Sk:Nagasena); Ingada ˆöŒf‘É (Sk:Angaja); Banabasu ”°“ß”gŽz (Sk:Vanavasin); Ajita ˆ¢Ž‘½ (Sk:Ajita); and, Chudahantaka ’ä¶”¼‘õ‰Þ (Sk:Chudapanthaka). A largely different group of sixteen rakan is mentioned in the sutra, AMIDAKYOU ˆ¢–í‘ÉŒo, with only Bindorabaradaja and Chudahantaka being the same. Traditions also exist of groups of eighteen juuhachi rakan \”ª—…Š¿ and five hundred arhats *gohyaku rakan ŒÜ•S—…Š¿. Paintings of the sixteen arhats are known to date from the Tang dynasty and were produced frequently in China through the Song dynasty, typically as wall paintings or sets of hanging scrolls. In general, Chinese rakan painting can be divided into two stylistic types which influenced the development of two painting traditions in Japan. The orthodox style, featuring careful attention to detail, rich color, and gold, is associated with the Northern Song painter Li Longmin (Jp: Ri Ryuumin —›—³–°, also known as Ch: Li Gonglin, Jp: Ri Kourin —›Œö—Ù: 1049?-1106). These works are known as riryuuminyou rakan —›—³–°—l—…Š¿. In contrast, the Five Dynasties priest Guanxiu (Jp: Kankyuu ŠÑ‹x; 832-912) created a distinctive ink monochrome style of rendering the sixteen arhats, known as *zengetsuyou rakan ‘TŒŽ—l—…Š¿. In Japan the subject is said to have been introduced from China in 982 by the priest Chounen 톑R (?-1016). Several sets of Chinese paintings extant in Japanese collections testify to the early popularity of the subject in Japanese temples. Japanese versions, like their Chinese prototypes, typically were done as a set of sixteen hanging scrolls or with the rakan grouped in one or two hanging scrolls. In both countries, because of the relative humanity of the subjects and their "foreign-ness" paintings of the sixteen arhats became exercises in grotesquerie or realism, the very frequency of commissions offering artists chances to explore distortion of form or to display their virtuosic control of the brush. The theme was particularly popular at Zen temples, where polychrome wood sculptures of the juuroku rakan were often placed in the second floor chamber of the gates *sanmon ŽO–å of Zen temples ; for examples Toufukuji “Œ•ŸŽ›, Nanzenji “ì‘TŽ›, and Myoushinji –­SŽ› in Kyoto. In the Edo period the juuroku rakan images continued to be produced, but by artists not associated with temples, and the paintings were used in secular contexts. The juuroku rakan were even parodied by *ukiyo-e •‚¢ŠG artists. Edo period gardens sometimes feature 16 stones arranged in reference to the juuroku rakan.
@
@

@
REFERENCES:
@
EXTERNAL LINKS: 
@@
NOTES
@

(C)2001 Japanese Architecture and Art Net Users System.@No reproduction or republication without written permission.
ŒfÚ‚̃eƒLƒXƒgEŽÊ^EƒCƒ‰ƒXƒg‚ȂǁA‘S‚ẴRƒ“ƒeƒ“ƒc‚Ì–³’f•¡»E“]Ú‚ð‹Ö‚¶‚Ü‚·B
@