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jousaku@éò
KEY WORD :@architecture / castles
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1@A fence around a castle. See *saku ò.

2@A general term for the earliest Japanese castles and fortifications. Jousaku were most common in north-eastern Japan, where they were often sited on low hillocks or flatlands, and surrounded by a fence saku. They are believed to have had a dry moat *karabori ‹ó–x and earthen embankments *dorui “y—Û. An early example is Nutari-no-ki ~‘«ò, built in 647 at the mouth of the Shinano M”Z River, Niigata prefecture. Jousaku in northeastern Japan were built for colonization, serving as centres of local government.
Early fortresses were also built in southwest Japan to defend against foreign incursions. Here, Korean type mountain castles chousenshiki yamajiro ’©‘NŽ®ŽRé were constructed at elevations of several hundred meters. The character for castle shiro é, is usually associated with defensive barriers made of earthen embankments, while the character for fence saku suggests there were palisades of wood. Excavated sites in northeastern Japan, whose names include the characters shiro or saku, tend to support this distinction.
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